Oman has witnessed a steady growth in greenhouse-gas emissions due to the increase in population and generation of municipal solid waste. Therefore, with the growing greenhouse-gas emissions, waste and energy demands, establishing waste-to-energy technologies is becoming an absolute necessity in Oman. The opportunities to mitigate greenhouse gas from the waste sector in Oman are not exploited or studied, and therefore, this study proposes a holistic quantification model to analyze future municipal solid waste management options. The quantification model is created through a set of assessment tools, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change models and emissions factors, and inputs to the model are based on the conditions of Oman. Total emissions from the disposal of municipal solid waste in landfills are estimated to increase from 2849 GgCO2eq in 2010 to 5565 GgCO2eq in 2030, whereas implementation of incineration, gasification and anaerobic digestion could reduce a total of 6257, 5489 and 4958 GgCO2eq in 2030, respectively, and could simultaneously generate 2096, 1205 and 136 GWh of electricity, respectively. Therefore, through carbon credits and sale of electricity, incineration could attract a total revenue of US$192 million, higher than gasification (US$139 million) and anaerobic digestion (US$81 million) in 2030. The higher potential of incineration to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions is attributed to its ability of treating higher amounts of waste and generating higher energy than gasification and anaerobic digestion. Therefore, this study concludes that incineration is the most optimum technology for Oman in terms of reducing volume of waste and greenhouse-gas emissions and generating energy and revenue.
This is a preview of subscription content,to check access.
Access this article
Abdul-Wahab SA, Charabi Y, Al-Rawas GA, Al-Maamari R, Gastli A, Chan K (2015) Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the Sultanate of Oman. Greenh Gases 5:339–346
Abushammala MFM, Qazi WA, Azam MH, Mehmood UA, Al-Mufragi GA, Alrawahi N (2016) Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas utilisation in Oman. Waste Manag Res 34:717–723
Al-Harthy M (2018) Circular economy: transformation of waste management in Oman. Oman Environmental Services Holding Company (be’ah). http://www.owesexpo.com/downloads/2017/Presentations-2017/Day1/09.05-Sheikh-Mohammed-Sulaiman-Circular-Economy.pdf. Accessed 26 Jan 2020
Alsabbagh M (2019) Mitigation of CO2e emissions from the municipal solid waste sector in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Climate 7(8):100
Alzate S, Restrepo-Cuestas B, Jaramillo-Duque Á (2019) Municipal solid waste as a source of electric power generation in Colombia: a techno-economic evaluation under different scenarios. Resources 8(1):51
Alzate-Arias S, Jaramillo-Duque Á, Villada F, Restrepo-Cuestas B (2018) Assessment of government incentives for energy from waste in Colombia. Sustainability 10(4):1294
Amoatey P, Sulaiman H (2017) Options for greenhouse gas mitigation strategies for road transportation in Oman. Am J Clim Change 6:217–229
Brander M (2012) Greenhouse gases, CO2, CO2e, and carbon: what do all these terms mean? Ecometrica. https://ecometrica.com/assets/GHGs-CO2-CO2e-and-Carbon-What-Do-These-Mean-v2.1.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2020
Brander M, Sood A, Wylie C, Haughton A, Lovell J (2011) Technical Paper | Electricity-specific emission factors for grid electricity. Ecometrica. https://ecometrica.com/assets/Electricity-specific-emission-factors-for-grid-electricity.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2020
Chandel MK, Kwok G, Jackson RB, Pratson LF (2012) The potential of waste-to-energy in reducing GHG emissions. Carbon Manag 3:133–144
Charabi Y, Al-Awadhi T, Choudri BS (2018) Strategic pathways and regulatory choices for effective GHG reduction in hydrocarbon based economy: case of Oman. Energy Rep 4:653–659
Coburn JB, Pingoud K, Thorsen G, Wagner F (2006) Solid waste disposal. In: Eggleston S, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, vol 5. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan
Dong J, Tang Y, Nzihou A, Chi Y, Weiss-Hortala E, Ni M (2018) Life cycle assessment of pyrolysis, gasification and incineration waste-to-energy technologies: theoretical analysis and case study of commercial plants. Sci Total Environ 626:744–753
Gómez A, Zubizarreta J, Rodrigues M, Dopazo C, Fueyo N (2010) Potential and cost of electricity generation from human and animal waste in Spain. Renew Energy 35(2):498–505
Guendehou GHS, Koch M, Hockstad L, Pipatti R, Yamada M (2006) Incineration and open burning of waste. In: Eggleston S, Buendia L, Miwa K, Ngara T, Tanabe K (eds) 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, vol 5. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan
Hadidi L, Omer M (2017) A financial feasibility model of gasification and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy (WTE) plants in Saudi Arabia. Waste Manag 59:90–101
Hoa NT, Matsuoka Y (2017) The analysis of greenhouse gas emissions/reductions in waste sector in Vietnam. Mitig Adapt Strateg Glob Change 22:427–446
International Renewable Energy Agency (2014) Sultanate of Oman renewables readiness assessment. http://www.irena.org/DocumentDownloads/Publications/IRENA_RRA_Oman_2014_LR.pdf. Accessed 2 Dec 2019
Johari A, Ahmed SI, Hashim H, Alkali H, Ramli M (2012) Economic and environmental benefits of landfill gas from municipal solid waste in Malaysia. Renew Sust Energy Rev 16:2907–2912
Muscat Electricity Distribution Company (2020) Oman electricity tariffs. http://www.dynamic-ews.com/Tariffs/Electricity%20Tariffs/Oman.pdf. Accessed 5 Jan 2020
Mustafa SS, Mustafa SS, Mutlag AH (2013) Kirkuk municipal waste to electrical energy. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 44:506–513
National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (UK NAEI) (2016) Overview of greenhouse gases. https://naei.beis.gov.uk/overview/ghg-overview. Accessed 20 Dec 2019
National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) (2020) Greenhouse gases. USA Government. https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/monitoring-references/faq/greenhouse-gases.php#intro. Accessed 20 Dec 2020
Oman Electricity Transmission Company S.A.O.C (2020) Load demand forecast. https://www.omangrid.com/en/Pages/LoadDemandForecast.aspx. Accessed 6 Jan 2020
Palanivel TM, Sulaiman H (2017) Municipal solid waste composition and greenhouse gas emission potential from a landfill: a case study from Muscat, Oman. Int J Environ Sustain 7(1):45–49
Pikoń K, Gaska K (2012) Greenhouse gas emission mitigation relevant to changes in municipal solid waste management system. J Air Waste Manag Assoc 60:782–788
Population Pyramid (2019) Population of Oman. https://www.populationpyramid.net/oman/2030/. Accessed 27 Dec 2019
Prabhu C (2018) Reductions in system losses yield RO 822 m in savings for power sector. Oman Observer. https://www.omanobserver.om/reductions-in-system-losses-yield-ro-822m-in-savings-for-power-sector/. Accessed 23 Jan 2020
Prabhu C (2019) Oman not immune to impacts of global climate change. Oman Observer. https://www.omanobserver.om/oman-not-immune-to-impacts-of-global-climate-change/. Accessed 4 Feb 2020
Qazi WA, Abushammala MFM, Azam MH (2018) Multi-criteria decision analysis of waste-to-energy technologies for municipal solid waste management in Sultanate of Oman. Waste Manag Res 36(7):594–605
Rahman SM, Khondaker AN (2012) Mitigation measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance carbon capture and storage in Saudi Arabia. Renew Sust Energy Rev 16(5):2446–2460
Rajaeifara MA, Ghanavati H, Dashti BB, Heijungs R, Aghbashlo M, Tabatabaei M (2017) Electricity generation and GHG emission reduction potentials through different municipal solid waste management technologies: a comparative review. Renew Sust Energy Rev 79:414–439
Reay D (2020) Other indirect greenhouse gases—NOx. http://www.ghgonline.org/othernox.htm. Accessed 20 Dec 2019
Teichmann D, Schempp C (2013) Calculation of GHG emissions of waste management projects. Joint Assistance to Support Projects in European Regions (Jaspers)
World Bank (2019) Oman population. https://data.worldbank.org/country/oman. Accessed 27 Dec 2019
Yousif JH, Alattar NN, Fekihal MA (2017) Forecasting models based CO2 emission for Sultanate of Oman. Int J Appl Eng 12(1):95–100
The authors are thankful to Oman Environmental Services Holding Company (be’ah) for providing the required data.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Editorial responsibility: Q. Aguilar-Virgen.
About this article
Cite this article
Qazi, W.A., Abushammala, M.F.M. The analysis of electricity production and greenhouse-gas emission reduction from municipal solid waste sector in Oman. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 18, 1395–1406 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-020-02871-1