Radioactivity and radiological impact of industrial raw materials in Korea
- 22 Downloads
Natural radionuclides of 226Ra (238U), 232Th, and 40K in raw materials used in building and cosmetic materials produced in Korea were measured using a γ-ray spectrometer (HPGe). The radionuclide concentrations ranged from 0.06 ± 0.01 to 4.13 ± 0.21 Bq g−1 for 226Ra, 0.08 ± 0.01 to 33.6 ± 1.9 Bq g−1 for 232Th, and from minimum detectable activity to 4.06 ± 0.36 Bq g−1 for 40K, respectively. The 226Ra and 232Th contents in a majority of samples were higher than the exemption level recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency of 1 Bq g−1 for 226Ra and 232Th and 10 Bq g−1 for 40K; however, the 40K content in all the selected raw materials was lower than this level. Moreover, it was observed that these materials were richer in thorium than uranium, which implies that these raw materials contain variable amounts of monazite ore. Radiological indices of radium equivalent, gamma-index, absorbed radiation, and equivalent gamma-doses were also calculated. The results indicate a potential radiation hazard, which highlight the necessity of radiation-regulation and routine monitoring.
KeywordsGamma-spectrometer Radionuclides Radiation-regulation Raw Building and cosmetic materials Korea
This work was supported by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety. The authors would like to thank all the members of the Department of Natural Radiation Safety for their support during this project.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- EC (European Commission) (1999) Radiation protection 112, radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Directorate-General Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil ProtectionGoogle Scholar
- EC (European Commission) (2000) Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials, radiation protection 112. Directorate-general Environment, Nuclear Safety and Civil Protection, Luxembourg, BelgiumGoogle Scholar
- IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) (2003) Extent of environmental contamination by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) and Technological Options for Mitigation. IAEA Technical Report Series No. 419, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) (2004) Application of the concepts of exclusion, exemption and clearance. Safety standards series RS-G-1.7, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- IAEA (International Atomic Energy Authority) (2014) Safety standards for protecting people and the environment, radiation protection and safety of radiation sources. General Safety Requirements No. GSR Part 3. IAEA, Vienna, Austria, p 128Google Scholar
- ICRP (International Commission of Radiological Protection) (2007) The 2007 recommendation of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP, Oxford; ICRP Publication 103Google Scholar
- Nuclear Safety and Security Commission (2014) Act on protective action guidelines against radiation in the natural environment. Act No. 12664Google Scholar
- UNSCEAR (1993) United Nations Scientific Committee on the effects of atomic radiation, sources and effects of ionizing radiation. New YorkGoogle Scholar
- UNSCEAR (2008) United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of atomic radiation. Sources and effects of ionizing radiation, exposures of the public and workers from various sources of radiation. Report to the General Assembly with Scientific Annex-b, p. 233. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar