Production and characterization of lipopeptide biosurfactant producing Paenibacillus sp. D9 and its biodegradation of diesel fuel

  • A. A. Jimoh
  • J. LinEmail author
Original Paper


The current research aimed at analyzing the biodegradation efficiency of a potent biosurfactant producing Paenibacillus sp. D9, along with the characterization of the surface-active compound produced during diesel fuel biodegradation. The biosurfactant production by Paenibacillus sp. D9 was evaluated using diesel fuel as culture medium, subsequently analyzed for its structural characteristics using different methods and thus determining the biodegradation utilization. This strain showed wide cell surface hydrophobicity against varieties of hydrocarbon substrate tested. Paenibacillus sp. D9 displayed higher hydrophobicity to the long-chain hydrocarbons mixtures tested such as 71.5% diesel fuel, 70.0% engine oil and 76.0% n-paraffin. The optimum condition for biosurfactant synthesis was obtained in a medium containing 10% (v/v) diesel fuel with a production yield of 4.7 g/L. The resultant biosurfactant reduced surface tension from 71.4 to 30.1 mN/m against carbon source utilized. The critical micelle concentration value of the biosurfactant was 200 mg/L with emulsification efficiencies against a wide range of hydrophobic pollutants. With different physiochemical and analytical methods, the study demonstrated that the genus Paenibacillus produced a low molecular weight lipopeptide biosurfactant. Its emulsifying ability further supports its potential use in environmental and biotechnological applications.


Biotechnological application Characterization Emulsification Hydrocarbon Surface tension 



The authors would like to acknowledge Prof T. Puckree, ex-Executive Dean of Health Sciences, the Durban University of Technology, South Africa for manuscript editing.

Supplementary material

13762_2019_2341_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (15 kb)
Fig. S1 Surface tension changes of biosurfactant of Paenibacillus sp. D9 against different concentration of biosurfactant solution. All data points are means ± standard deviation (S.D.) of three independent biological repetitions (n=3) (XLSX 15 kb)
13762_2019_2341_MOESM2_ESM.tif (320 kb)
Fig. S2 TLC Analysis of purified biosurfactant of Paenibacillus sp. D9 (TIFF 319 kb)
13762_2019_2341_MOESM3_ESM.tif (59 kb)
Fig. S3 Peptide structure generated from the purified lipopeptide biosurfactant (TIFF 59 kb)
13762_2019_2341_MOESM4_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 4 (DOCX 13 kb)
13762_2019_2341_MOESM5_ESM.docx (13 kb)
Supplementary material 5 (DOCX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Discipline of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, College of Agriculture, Engineering, and ScienceUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal (Westville)DurbanSouth Africa

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