This study describes the emission factors (EFs) of 16 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for the combustion of commonly used household solid fuels including coal balls (CB), fuelwood (FW), dung cakes (DC), crop residues (CR), and mixed fuels (MF: DC + FW), collected from ten states of India. Sum of 16 VOCs EF (g kg−1) have shown highest level (50.0 ± 22.7 g kg−1) for CB, followed by CR (23.71 ± 10.64 g kg−1), DC (19.08 ± 3.29 g kg−1), MF (15.77 ± 9.49 g kg−1), and FW (12.79 ± 5.69 g kg−1). These findings are multifold higher than those reported for biomass burning in test chamber studies. Benzene and dichloromethane EFs were found to be dominating among the aromatic and halogenated VOCs, respectively. Annual TVOCs emission estimates were evaluated to be 12.58 ± 5.92 Gg year−1 from household solid fuel burning practices. It was the 1/6th of TVOCs emission estimates (73 Gg year−1) from biomass burning in India during 2009.
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This study is supported by DST Project proposal (EMR/2015/000928) and partially supported by DST FIST program (SR/FST/CSI-259/2014 (c)) and UGC-SAP-DRS-II program (F-540/7/DRS-II/2016 (SAP-I)). One of the authors (MV) is grateful to Pt Ravishankar Shukla University for providing university fellowship (No./1732/10/Sch./2017) and laboratory facilities. Authors (SP and MV) are also grateful to CSIR-NEERI, Kolkata, for providing instrumentation facilities.
Editorial responsibility: M. Abbaspour.
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Verma, M., Pervez, S., Majumdar, D. et al. Emission estimation of aromatic and halogenated VOCs from household solid fuel burning practices. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 16, 2683–2692 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-018-1920-7
- Emission factor
- Volatile organic compounds
- Household solid fuels