Advertisement

Exhaust emission characteristics of a diesel engine on gasoline fumigation: an experimental investigation and evaluation using the MCDM method

  • M. Hoseinpour
  • H. Sadrnia
  • B. Ghobadian
  • M. Tabasizadeh
Original Paper
  • 31 Downloads

Abstract

The multi-criteria decision-making method was used to comprehensively evaluate exhaust gas emission characteristics of a diesel engine, while gasoline fumigation was added to reduce pollutant emissions under different operating conditions, namely engine loads (1.9–6.2 bar) and engine speeds (1300 and 2000 rpm). Experiments were performed on a multi-cylinder diesel engine with a mechanically controlled fuel injection pump. The experimental results show that using partially premixed gasoline, the specific NOx and CO2 emissions decrease to about 28 and 7% (averaged over all engine loads), respectively, in comparison with the pure diesel case, while smoke opacity decreases up to 50% at high loads with premixed gasoline. However, increase in the specific CO and HC emissions has been found by applying the same strategy at all loading conditions. The optimum conditions with desirable or minimum emissions characteristics were operation modes with gasoline fumigation at 2.1 bar engine load for 1300 rpm and at 3.8 bar engine load for 2000 rpm. Thus, gasoline fuel as premixed fuel with the fumigation method showed a favorable potential in terms of reducing the main emissions in diesel engines.

Keywords

Diesel engine Exhaust emissions Gasoline fumigation MCDM method 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge the Head of the Department of Biosystems Engineering of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad and all who supported and assisted in conducting this study.

References

  1. Abu-Qudais M, Haddad O, Qudaisat M (2000) The effect of alcohol fumigation on diesel engine performance and emissions. Energy Convers Manag 41:389–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0196-8904(99)00099-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Afsordegan A, Sánchez M, Agell N, Zahedi S, Cremades LV (2016) Decision making under uncertainty using a qualitative TOPSIS method for selecting sustainable energy alternatives. Int J Environ Sci Technol 13:1419–1432.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-016-0982-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chang C-L (2010) A modified VIKOR method for multiple criteria analysis. Environ Monit Assess 168:339–344.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-009-1117-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chauhan BS, Kumar N, Pal SS, Du Jun Y (2011) Experimental studies on fumigation of ethanol in a small capacity diesel engine. Energy 36:1030–1038.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2010.12.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen Z, Liu J, Wu Z, Lee C (2013) Effects of port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol and EGR on combustion and emissions of a direct injection diesel engine. Energy Convers Manag 76:725–731.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.08.030 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cheng CH, Cheung CS, Chan TL, Lee SC, Yao CD (2008) Experimental investigation on the performance, gaseous and particulate emissions of a methanol fumigated diesel engine. Sci Total Environ 389:115–124.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2007.08.041 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Curran S, Hanson R, Wagner R (2012) Effect of E85 on RCCI performance and emissions on a multi-cylinder light-duty diesel engine. SAE Technical Paper, 2012-01-0376 1.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2012-01-0376
  8. Datta A, Mandal BK (2016) A comprehensive review of biodiesel as an alternative fuel for compression ignition engine. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 57:799–821.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.170 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dinh LTT, Guo Y, Mannan MS (2009) Sustainability evaluation of biodiesel production using multicriteria decision-making. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 28:38–46.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.10335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gal T, Hanne T (1997) Multicriteria analysis. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Gal T, Hanne T (1999) Multicriteria decision making: advances in MCDM models, algorithms, theory, and applications. Kluwer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghadikolaei MA (2016) Effect of alcohol blend and fumigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of IC engines: a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 57:1440–1495.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.128 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hambali A, Sapuan SM, Ismail N, Nukman Y (2010) Material selection of polymeric composite automotive bumper beam using analytical hierarchy process. J Cent South Univ Technol 17:244–256.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11771-010-0038-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Heywood JB (1988) Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill, USAGoogle Scholar
  15. Imran A, Varman M, Masjuki HH, Kalam MA (2013) Review on alcohol fumigation on diesel engine: a viable alternative dual fuel technology for satisfactory engine performance and reduction of environment concerning emission. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 26:739–751.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.05.070 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Imtenan S, Varman M, Masjuki HH, Kalam M, Sajjad H, Arbab MI (2014) Impact of low temperature combustion attaining strategies on diesel engine emissions for diesel and biodiesels: a review. Energy Convers Manag 80:329–356.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2014.01.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Johnson T (2011) Diesel emissions in review. SAE Int J Engines 4:143–157.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2011-01-0304 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liu M, Deng Y, Zhu H, Gong J (2016) Influence analysis of monolith structure on regeneration temperature in the process of microwave regeneration in the diesel particulate filter. Can J Chem Eng 94:168–174.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cjce.22366 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ma J, Lü X, Ji L, Huang Z (2008) An experimental study of HCCI-DI combustion and emissions in a diesel engine with dual fuel. Int J Therm Sci 47:1235–1242.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijthermalsci.2007.10.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Manente V, Johansson B, Tunestal P, Cannella W (2010) Effects of ethanol and different type of gasoline fuels on partially premixed combustion from low to high load. SAE Technical Paper, 2010-01-0871.  https://doi.org/10.4271/2010-01-0871
  21. Opricovic S, Tzeng G-H (2004) Compromise solution by MCDM methods: a comparative analysis of VIKOR and TOPSIS. Eur J Oper Res 156:445–455.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-2217(03)00020-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Osses M, Andrews GE, Greenhough J (1998) Diesel fumigation partial premixing for reduced particulate soot fraction emissions. SAE Tech paper 98053.  https://doi.org/10.4271/980532
  23. Park S, Lee C (2015) Effect of bioethanol on combustion and exhaust emissions in a diesel-bioethanol dual-fuel combustion engine. J Energy Eng.  https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)EY.1943-7897.0000313 Google Scholar
  24. Park SH, Yoon SH, Lee CS (2014) Bioethanol and gasoline premixing effect on combustion and emission characteristics in biodiesel dual-fuel combustion engine. Appl Energy 135:286–298.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.08.056 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pulkrabek WW (1997) Engineering fundamentals of the internal combustion engine. Prentice Hall, USAGoogle Scholar
  26. Rassafi AA, Vaziri M, Azadani AN (2006) Strategies for utilizing alternative fuels by Iranian passenger cars. Int J Environ Sci Technol 3:59–68.  https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03325908 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Şahin Z, Durgun O (2007a) High speed direct injection (DI) light-fuel (gasoline) fumigated vehicle diesel engine. Fuel 86:388–399.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2006.07.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Şahin Z, Durgun O (2007b) Theoretical investigation of effects of light fuel fumigation on diesel engine performance and emissions. Energy Convers Manag 48:1952–1964.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2007.01.027 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Şahin Z, Durgun O (2013) Improving of diesel combustion-pollution-fuel economy and performance by gasoline fumigation. Energy Convers Manag 76:620–633.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2013.07.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sahin Z, Durgun O, Bayram C (2012) Experimental investigation of gasoline fumigation in a turbocharged IDI diesel engine. Fuel 95:113–121.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2011.09.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sakthivel G, Nagarajan G, Ilangkumaran M, Sathish Kumar S, Suresh KS (2013) A hybrid multi-criteria decision support system for selection of optimum fuel blend. Int J Exergy 12:463–490.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJEX.2013.055076 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sakthivel G et al (2014) Multi-criteria decision modelling approach for biodiesel blend selection based on GRA–TOPSIS analysis. Int J Ambient Energy 35:139–154.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01430750.2013.789984 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Stone R (1999) Introduction to internal combustion engine. SAE International and Macmillan Press, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tzeng GH, Lin CW, Opricovic S (2005) Multi-criteria analysis of alternative-fuel buses for public transportation. Energy Policy 33:1373–1383.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2003.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang ZH, Cheung CS, Chan TL, Yao CD (2009) Emission reduction from diesel engine using fumigation methanol and diesel oxidation catalyst. Sci Total Environ 407:4497–4505.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.04.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang ZH, Tsang KS, Cheung CS, Chan TL, Yao CD (2011) Effect of fumigation methanol and ethanol on the gaseous and particulate emissions of a direct-injection diesel engine. Atmos Environ 45:2001–2008.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.12.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang B, Jiaqiang E, Gong J, Yuan W, Zuo W, Li Y, Fu J (2016) Multidisciplinary design optimization of the diesel particulate filter in the composite regeneration process. Appl Energy 181:14–28.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.08.051 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhao D, Wei Y, Chen X, Song R, Liu S (2015) EGR strategy for DME engine-out NOx to meet euro V. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 34:881–889.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ep.12044 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Hoseinpour
    • 1
  • H. Sadrnia
    • 1
  • B. Ghobadian
    • 2
  • M. Tabasizadeh
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biosystems EngineeringFerdowsi University of MashhadMashhadIran
  2. 2.Department of Biosystems EngineeringTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations