Removal of diazinon pesticide from aqueous solutions using MCM-41 type materials: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics

  • M. A. Amani
  • A. M. Latifi
  • K. TahvildariEmail author
  • R. Karimian
Original Paper


In this research, ordered mesoporous silica, including MCM-41, was synthesized via sol–gel process and a propyl methacrylate-modified ordered mesoporous silica (MPS-MCM-41) was successfully synthesized via a postsynthesis grafting process. Then both MCM-41 and MPS-MCM-41 were characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM and BET techniques. The synthesized materials were utilized as adsorbent for removal of diazinon pesticide from aqueous solutions. The effects of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, initial concentration and temperature have been evaluated using removal efficiencies. Also, the kinetic, thermodynamic and isotherm models of diazinon adsorption were studied for the both MCM-41 and MPS-MCM-41. The results showed that the maximum adsorption capacities are 142 and 254 mg g−1 for the MCM-41 and MPS-MCM-41, respectively, at the initial concentration of 50 mg L−1, temperature of 298 K and adsorbent dose of 0.1 g L−1. The highest percentages of diazinon removal are 56.4 and 87.2 (at adsorbent dose of 2 g L−1 and the temperature of 318 K) for the MCM-41 and MPS-MCM-41, respectively. The Freundlich and Langmuir models are more compatible for describing equilibrium data of the diazinon adsorption capacity on the MCM-41 and MPS-MCM-41, respectively. Thermodynamic study indicated that the adsorption process of diazinon onto MCM-41 and MPS-MCM-41 is exothermic and has a spontaneous nature. The higher adsorption capacity and higher spontaneous nature of MPS-MCM-41 in comparison with MCM-41 might be due to the presence of the both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interaction between surface functional groups of MPS-MCM-41 (hydroxyl and propyl methacrylate) and diazinon functional groups.


Adsorption Mesoporous silica Propyl methacrylate Diazinon Hydrophobic interaction 



Authors are grateful to council of Tehran North Branch of Islamic Azad University, Iran, and Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah Medical Science University, Iran, for providing financial support to undertake this work.


  1. Aggarwal V, Deng X, Tuli A, Goh KS (2013) Diazinon—chemistry and environmental fate: a California perspective. Rev Environ ContamToxicol 223:40–107Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad R, Kumar R (2010) Adsorptive removal of congo red dye from aqueous solution using bael shell carbon. Appl Surf Sci 257:1628–1633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Al-Othman ZA (2006) Synthesis, modification, and application of mesoporous materials based on MCM-41. CiteseerGoogle Scholar
  4. Anbia M, Ghasemian MB, Shariati S, Zolfaghari G (2012) Employing a new modified nanoporous carbon for extraction and determination of 1, 10-phenanthroline and 2, 2′-bipyridine by SPE and use of the Taguchi optimization method. Anal Methods 4:4220–4229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anwar S, Liaquat F, Khan QM, Khalid ZM, Iqbal S (2009) Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by Bacillus pumilus strain C2A1. J Hazard Mater 168:400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Armaghan M, Amini MM (2009) Adsorption of diazinon and fenitothion on MCM-41 and MCM-48 mesoporous silicas from non-polar solvent. Colloid J 71:583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Balali-Mood M, Saber H (2012) Recent advances in the treatment of organophosphorous poisonings. Iran J Med Sci 37:74–91Google Scholar
  8. Bayramoglu G, Altintas B, Arica MY (2009) Adsorption kinetics and thermodynamic parameters of cationic dyes from aqueous solutions by using a new strong cation-exchange resin. Chem Eng J 152:339–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brassard J-D, Sarkar DK, Perron J (2012) Fluorine based superhydrophobic coatings. Appl Sci 2:453–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Burleigh MC, Markowitz MA, Spector MS, Gaber BP (2002) Porous polysilsesquioxanes for the adsorption of phenols. Environ Sci Technol 36:2515–2518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Čolović M, Krstić D, Petrović S, Leskovac A, Joksić G, Savić J, Franko M, Trebše P, Vasić V (2010) Toxic effects of diazinon and its photodegradation products. Toxicol Lett 193:9–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Colovic MB, Krstic DZ, Lazarevic-Pasti TD, Bondzic AM, Vasic VM (2013) Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors: pharmacology and toxicology. Curr Neuropharmacol 11:315–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Doula M, Ioannou A, Dimirkou A (2000) Thermodynamics of copper adsorption-desorption by Ca-kaolinite. Adsorption 6:325–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dupraz A, Vd Meer S, De Wijn J, Goedemoed J (1996) Biocompatibility screening of silane-treated hydroxyapatite powders, for use as filler in resorbable composites. J Mater Sci Mater Med 7:731–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Esfandian H, Parvini M, Khoshandam B, Samadi-Maybodi A (2015) Removal of diazinon from aqueous solutions in batch systems using Cu-modified sodalite zeolite: an application of response surface methodology. Int J Eng Trans B Appl 28:1552Google Scholar
  16. Gallo M, Lawryk N (1991) Organic phosphorus pesticides. In: Hayes WJ, Laws ER (eds) Handbook of pesticide toxicology classes of pesticides, vol 2. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 917–1123Google Scholar
  17. Giraldo L, Moreno-Piraján JC (2013) Study on the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution on modified SBA-15. Mater Res 16:745–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gomaa H, Suffet I, Faust S (1969) Kinetics of hydrolysis of diazinon and diazoxon. Decontamination of pesticide residues in the environmental. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  19. Gong J, Liu T, Wang X, Hu X, Zhang L (2011) Efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems with the assembly of anisotropic layered double hydroxide nanocrystals@ carbon nanosphere. Environ Sci Technol 45:6181–6187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gong J, Gao X, Li M, Nie Q, Pan W, Liu R (2017) Dye adsorption on electrochemical exfoliated graphene oxide nanosheets: pH influence, kinetics and equilibrium in aqueous solution. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:305–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Grün M, Lauer I, Unger KK (1997) The synthesis of micrometer-and submicrometer-size spheres of ordered mesoporous oxide MCM-41. Adv Mater 9:254–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ho Y, Chiang C (2001) Sorption studies of acid dye by mixed sorbents. Adsorption 7:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hossaini H, Moussavi G, Farrokhi M (2014) The investigation of the LED-activated FeFNS–TiO 2 nanocatalyst for photocatalytic degradation and mineralization of organophosphate pesticides in water. Water Res 59:130–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Howard PH (1991) Handbook of environmental fate and exposure data: for organic chemicals, pesticides, vol III. CRC Press, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  25. Konrad J, Armstrong D, Chesters G (1967) Soil degradation of diazinon, a phosphorothioate insecticide. Agron J 59:591–594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. López MI, Otero R, Esquivel D, Jimenez-Sanchidrián C, Fernández JM, Romero-Salguero FJ (2015) Evaluation of different bridged organosilicas as efficient adsorbents for the herbicide S-metolachlor. RSC Adv 5:24158–24166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Michel C, Barre Y, De Windt L, De Dieuleveult C, Brackx E, Grandjean A (2016) Ion exchange and structural properties of a new cyanoferrate mesoporous silica material for Cs removal from natural saline waters. J Environ Chem Eng 5:810–817CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mohseni-Bandpei A, Fattahzadeh M, Rezaei Kalantary R, Eslami A (2015) Evaluation of diazinon adsorption from water solutions using magnetic carbon nano-tubes with Fe3O4. J Environ Health Eng 2:283–293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Moussavi G, Hosseini H, Alahabadi A (2013) The investigation of diazinon pesticide removal from contaminated water by adsorption onto NH 4 Cl-induced activated carbon. Chem Eng J 214:172–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ngah WW, Fatinathan S (2008) Adsorption of Cu (II) ions in aqueous solution using chitosan beads, chitosan–GLA beads and chitosan–alginate beads. Chem Eng J 143:62–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ouznadji ZB, Sahmoune MN, Mezenner NY (2016) Adsorptive removal of diazinon: kinetic and equilibrium study. Desalination Water Treat 57:1880–1889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Özcan A, Özcan AS (2005) Adsorption of Acid Red 57 from aqueous solutions onto surfactant-modified sepiolite. J Hazard Mater 125:252–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Putz A-M, Putz MV (2012) Spectral inverse quantum (spectral-IQ) method for modeling mesoporous systems: application on silica films by FTIR. Int J Mol Sci 13:15925–15941CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Qin Q, Ma J, Liu K (2007) Adsorption of nitrobenzene from aqueous solution by MCM-41. J Colloid Interface Sci 315:80–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ryoo KS, Jung SY, Sim H, Choi J-H (2013) Comparative Study on adsorptive characteristics of diazinon in water by various adsorbents. Bull Korean Chem Soc 34:2753–2759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Samet Y, Agengui L, Abdelhedi R (2010) Electrochemical degradation of chlorpyrifos pesticide in aqueous solutions by anodic oxidation at boron-doped diamond electrodes. Chem Eng J 161:167–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Shahbazi A, Younesi H, Badiei A (2011) Functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica by melamine-based dendrimer amines for adsorptive characteristics of Pb(II), Cu (II) and Cd (II) heavy metal ions in batch and fixed bed column. Chem Eng J 168:505–518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Trammell SA, Zeinali M, Melde BJ, Charles PT, Velez FL, Dinderman MA, Kusterbeck A, Markowitz MA (2008) Nanoporous organosilicas as preconcentration materials for the electrochemical detection of trinitrotoluene. Anal Chem 80:4627–4633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vidal CB, Barros AL, Moura CP, De Lima AC, Dias FS, Vasconcellos LC, Fechine PB, Nascimento RF (2011) Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions by modified periodic mesoporous organosilica. J Colloid Interface Sci 357:466–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vijayalakshmi U, Balamurugan A, Rajeswari S (2005) Synthesis and characterization of porous silica gels for biomedical applications. Trends Biomater Artif Organs 18:101–105Google Scholar
  41. Wang P, Du M, Zhu H, Bao S, Yang T, Zou M (2015) Structure regulation of silica nanotubes and their adsorption behaviors for heavy metal ions: pH effect, kinetics, isotherms and mechanism. J Hazard Mater 286:533–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. World Health Organization (2009) The WHO Recommended classification of pesticides by hazard and guidelines to classification. WHO press, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  43. Wu Z-J, Lee K (2004) Adsorption mechanisms of mesoporous adsorbents in solutions. Chem Res Chin Univ 20:185–187Google Scholar
  44. Yuh-Shan H (2004) Citation review of Lagergren kinetic rate equation on adsorption reactions. Scientometrics 59:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. Amani
    • 1
  • A. M. Latifi
    • 2
  • K. Tahvildari
    • 1
    Email author
  • R. Karimian
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, Tehran North BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Applied Biotechnology Research CenterBaqiyatallah University of Medical SciencesTehranIran

Personalised recommendations