Removal of haloethers, trihalomethanes and haloketones from water using Moringa oleifera seeds

  • A. Alsharaa
  • C. BasheerEmail author
  • S. O. Adio
  • K. Alhooshani
  • H. K. Lee
Original Paper


Moringa oleifera seed was used as a biosorbent for the removal of water treatment disinfection by-products, haloethers, trihalomethanes and haloketones from water samples. M. oleifera seed has polar functional groups such as O–H, C=O, C–N and others which facilitate the extraction of these disinfection by-products. Experiments were conducted in batch and fixed bed column modes. Using batch mode, different parameters were optimized such as M. oleifera seed dosage, sample pH, contact time and agitation speed. The effect of the thickness layer and flow rate were also studied using the fixed bed mode. Maximum adsorption occurs using the batch mode with removal efficiencies of 120.5, 114 and 111.5 mg/g for haloethers, trihalomethanes and haloketones, respectively. Adsorption equilibrium followed Langmuir model, and the kinetic data obeyed the pseudo-second-order model, revealing that the M. oleifera seed had higher adsorption capacity than other reported sorbents. Shorter removal time with higher adsorption capacity of disinfection by-products by M. oleifera seed suggests that this material was effective for water treatment, in dealing with the removal of the disinfection by-products considered.


Disinfection by-products Biosorbent Water treatment Kinetics Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the funding support of the Deanship of Scientific Research at King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM) through a KFUPM-National University of Singapore collaborative Project Grant (Project No. KFUPM-NUS-06/NUS 15111/15112).


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Alsharaa
    • 1
  • C. Basheer
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • S. O. Adio
    • 3
  • K. Alhooshani
    • 1
  • H. K. Lee
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Center of Excellence in NanotechnologyKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of Earth SciencesKing Fahd University of Petroleum and MineralsDhahranSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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