Varying matrix effects for elemental analysis identified from groundwater in the Barnett Shale

  • D. D. CarltonJr.
  • B. E. Fontenot
  • Z. L. Hildenbrand
  • T. M. Davis
  • J. L. Walton
  • K. A. Schug
Original Paper

Abstract

The quality of analytical measurements can be influenced by the matrix of the sample of interest. The knowledge of the sample matrix allows for appropriate sample preparation, instrumental parameters, and quantification methods in an effort to achieve accurate results. Matrix matching can be difficult when sampling across various water sources with the possible introduction of unknown endogenous contaminants due to various degrees of land use, urbanization, and energy exploration, likely playing a factor. The degree of matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy for nineteen metals from twenty groundwater samples across North Texas was assessed using a standard addition method. Matrix effects were characterized in collected groundwater samples (a) with no pretreatment, (b) after reversed-phase solid-phase extraction of possible organic contaminants, and (c) for a matrix of organic material retained on the reversed-phase sorbent. It was found that without any extraction treatment, only 54 % of all measurements experienced no matrix effect. After extracting unknown organic sample constituents, an increase to 74 % of measurements showing no matrix effect was recorded. Reconstituting the extracted organic sample matrix found this fraction to be a significant source of the deviated results with only 13 % experiencing no matrix effect. Results for the metals investigated are also discussed, along with correlations to water quality parameters such as turbidity, total dissolved solids, and salinity.

Keywords

Inductively coupled plasma–optical emission spectroscopy Solid-phase extraction Sample preparation Unconventional drilling 

Supplementary material

13762_2015_803_MOESM1_ESM.docx (40 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 40 kb)

References

  1. Agatemor C, Beauchemin D (2011) Matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a review. Anal Chim Acta 706:66–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barth S (1997) Comparison of NTIMS and ICP-OES methods for the determination of boron concentrations in natural fresh and saline waters. Fresenius J Anal Chem 358:854–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Caenn R, Darley HCH, Gray GR (2011) Composition and properties of drilling and completion fluids. Gulf Professional Publishing, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  4. Dettman JR, Olesik JW (2012) Reduction of matrix effects in quantitative and semi-quantitative inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry using a partial local thermodynamic equilibrium model and an internal standard. Spectrochim Acta B 76:96–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dow Water and Process Solutions (2011) FILMTEC reverse osmosis membranes: technical manual. 609-00071-1009Google Scholar
  6. Engelhardt H, Lobert T (1999) Chromatographic determination of metallic impurities in reversed-phase HPLC columns. Anal Chem 71:1885–1892CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ferreira SLC, de Andrade JB, Korn MGA, Pereira MG, Lemos VA, Santos WNL, Rodrigues FM, Souza AS, Fereira HS, Silva EGP (2007) Review of procedures involving separation and preconcentration for the determination of cadmium using spectrometric techniques. J Hazard Mater 145:358–367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fink JK (2011) Petroleum engineer’s guide to oil field chemicals and fluids. Gulf Professional Publishing, WalthamGoogle Scholar
  9. Fontenot BE, Hunt LR, Hildenbrand ZL, Carlton DD Jr, Oka H, Walton JL, Hopkins D, Osorio A, Bjorndal B, Hu QH, Schug KA (2013) An evaluation of water quality in private drinking water wells near natural gas extraction sites in the barnett shale formation. Environ Sci Technol 47:10032–10040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fraser MM, Beauchemin D (2009) Evidence supporting the occurrence of Coulomb fission during conventional sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom 24:469–475CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Groh S, Garcia C, Murtazin A, Horvatic V, Niemax K (2009) Local effects of atomizing analyte droplets on the plasma parameters of the inductively coupled plasma. Spectrochim Acta B 64:247–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jiang C (1996) Solubility and solubility constant of barium sulfate in aqueous sodium sulfate solutions between 0 and 80 °C. J Solut Chem 25:105–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Knápek J, Komárek J, Novotný K (2010) Determination of cadmium, chromium and copper in high salt samples by LA-ICP-OES after electrodeposition—preliminary study. Microchim Acta 171:145–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kramida A, Ralchenko Y, Reader J, NIST ASD Team (2013) NIST atomic spectra database (ver. 5.1). http://physics.nist.gov/asd
  15. Nam S-H, Chung H, Kim J-J, Lee Y-I (2008) Mass background spectra of ICP-MS with various acids. Bull Korean Chem Soc 29:2237–2240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Nguyen HP, Li L, Nethrapalli IS, Guo N, Toren-Allerand CD, Harrison DE, Astle CM, Schug KA (2011) Evaluation of matrix effects in analysis of estrogen using liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry. J Sep Sci 34:1781–1787CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Olesik JW (1991) Elemental analysis using ICP-OES and ICP/MS: An evaluation and assessment of remaining problems. Anal Chem 63:12A–21ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Olesik JW (1996) Fundamental research in ICP-OES and ICPMS. Anal Chem 68:469A–474AGoogle Scholar
  19. Osborn SG, Vengosh A, Warner NR, Jackson RB (2011) Methane contamination of drinking water accompanying gas-well drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:8172–8176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pereira CD, Aguirre MÁ, Nóbrega JA, Hidalgo M, Canals A (2012) Correction of matrix effects for As and Se in ICP OES using a flow blurring multiple nebulizer. J Anal At Spectrom 27:2132–2137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. PerkinElmer Inc. (2013) Atomic spectroscopy—a guide to selecting the appropriate technique and system. http://www.perkinelmer.com/CMSResources/Images/44-74482BRO_WorldLeaderAAICPMSICPMS.pdf
  22. Reedy RC, Scanlon BR, Walden S, Strassberg G (2011) Naturally occurring groundwater contamination in Texas. Final Report 1004831125; Texas Water Development BoardGoogle Scholar
  23. Sadler DA, Sun F, Howe SE, Littlejohn D (1997) Comparison of procedures for correction of matrix interferences in the multi-element analysis of soils by ICP-AES with a CCD detection system. Mikrochim Acta 126:301–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sah RN, Brown PH (1997) Boron determination—a review of analytical methods. Microchem J 56:285–304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Silva JCJ, Baccan N, Nóbrega JA (2003) Analytical performance of an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer with dual view configuration. J Braz Chem Soc 14:310–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stewart II, Olesik JW (1998) Transient acid effects in inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. J Anal At Spectrom 13:843–854CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stewart II, Olesik JW (1999) Droplet introduction to investigate space-charge effects in plasma mass spectrometry. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 10:159–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Stüber M, Reemtsma T (2004) Evaluation of three calibration methods to compensate matrix effects in environmental analysis with LC-ESI-MS. Anal Bioanal Chem 378:910–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Texas Water Development Board (2014) Groundwater database reports. http://www.twdb.state.tx.us/groundwater/data/gwdbrpt.asp
  30. Thomsen V, Schatzlein D (2006) The laws of spectrochemistry. Spectroscopy 21:44–48Google Scholar
  31. Thomsen V, Schatzlein D, Mercuro D (2006) Interelement corrections in spectrochemistry. Spectroscopy 23:32–40Google Scholar
  32. US EPA (1999) Compendium of ERT groundwater sampling procedures, EPA/540/P-91/007Google Scholar
  33. US EPA (2007) Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Method-6010CGoogle Scholar
  34. Welch AH, Westjohn DB, Helsel DR, Wanty RB (2000) Arsenic in ground water of the United States: occurrence and geochemistry. Ground Water 38:589–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. D. CarltonJr.
    • 1
  • B. E. Fontenot
    • 2
    • 5
  • Z. L. Hildenbrand
    • 3
  • T. M. Davis
    • 1
  • J. L. Walton
    • 4
  • K. A. Schug
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryThe University of Texas at ArlingtonArlingtonUSA
  2. 2.Independent ConsultantArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.Inform Environmental LLCDallasUSA
  4. 4.SWCA Environmental ConsultantsArlingtonUSA
  5. 5.Water Quality Protection DivisionUnited States Environmental Protection AgencyDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations