Assessing village-level carbon balance due to greenhouse gas mitigation interventions using EX-ACT model
- 182 Downloads
Under National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (NICRA) project, a range of climate smart agricultural practices were evaluated with on-farm demonstrations during 2011–2013 in eight climatically vulnerable villages of Andhra Pradesh, India. Proven climate smart practices viz residue recycling, soil, water and nutrient management, afforestation and feeding + breeding practices in livestock were implemented in annual and perennial crops, irrigated rice, horticulture, fodder, forestry and livestock. An EX-ante carbon-balance tool (EX-ACT) developed by the FAO was used with a combination of various climate smart interventions to know the mitigation potentials in eight climatically vulnerable villages of Andhra Pradesh, India. Based on our observations, EX-ACT model had shown that these practices were effective to mitigate CO2 emissions apart from enhancing soil productivity. In Nacharam, Yagantipalli, Sirusuwada and Matsyapuri villages, climate smart practices implemented in annual crops along with crop residue recycling, crop and water management practices resulted in negative carbon (C) balance by −16,410, −8851, −7271 and −6125 t CO2 e, respectively. The EX-ACT model predicted positive carbon balance with irrigated module in the rice-growing villages of Sirusuwada and Matsyapuri villages. The negative values suggest a sink, and positive values a source for CO2 emissions. In Chamaluru village, although there were CO2 emissions (source) due to livestock and non-forest and land use changes, there was a carbon sink due to other activities as predicted by the model. The results suggested that various climatic smart practices at the village level were successful in creating net sink of CO2 emissions (t CO2 e).
KeywordsCO2 emissions EX-ACT model Agriculture Carbon balance Climatic smart practices
We sincerely thank the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) for funding under National Initiative on Climate Resilient Agriculture (ICAR-NICRA: 4-3/2010-1.A.II) and Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture (CRIDA) for providing all the facilities. Authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers whose suggestions have contributed to the improvement of the manuscript significantly.
- Bernoux M, Bockel L, Branca G, Tinlot M (2010) EX-ante carbon-balance tool (EXACT) technical guidelines, version May 2010, EASYPol Module 101, FAO, Rome, p 79. http://www.fao.org/docs/up/easypol/780/ex-act-tech-guidelines_101en.pdf
- Eckard RJ, Dalley D, Crawford M (2000) Impacts of potential management changes on greenhouse gas emissions and sequestration from dairy production systems in Australia. In: Bugg AL, Ainslie H, Keenan R (ed) Management options for Carbon Sequestration in forest, agricultural and rangeland ecosystems, Workshop Proceedings. ANU, Canberra. pp 58–72. CRC for Greenhouse Accounting. ISBN 0646404318Google Scholar
- Lal R (2009) Soil carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation and food security. In Souvenir, Platinum Jubilee Symposium on Soil science in meet. The challenges to food security and environmental quality, New Delhi, 22–25 December. Indian Society of Soil Science, New Delhi, pp 39–46Google Scholar
- Lal R (2010) Carbon sequestration potential of rainfed agriculture. Indian. J Dryland Agric Res Dev 25:1–6Google Scholar
- Mandal B, Majumdar B, Bandhopadhyay PK, Hazra GC, Gangopadhyay A, Samantaray RN, Mishra AK, Chaudhury J, Saha MN, Kundu S (2007) The potential cropping systems and soil amendments for carbon sequestration in soils under long-term experiments in subtropical India. Glob Change Biol 13:357–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rajamani L (2007) India’s negotiating position on climate change: legitimate but not sagacious. CPR issue brief. Number II. www.cprindia.org
- Smith P, Martino D, Cai Z, Gwary D, Janzen HH, Kumar P, Mccarl B, Ogle S, O’mara F, Rice C, Scholes RJ, Sirotenko O (2007) Agriculture. Chapter 8. In: Metz B, Davidson OR, Bosch PR, Dave R, Meyer A (eds) Climate Change 2007: Mitigation. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USAGoogle Scholar
- Srinivasarao Ch, Venkateswarlu B, Dixit S, Kundu S, Gayatri Devi K (2011a) Livelihood impacts of soil health improvement in backwards and tribal districts of Andhra Pradesh. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, HyderabadGoogle Scholar
- Srinivasarao Ch, Venkateswarlu B, Srinivas K, Kundu S, Singh AK (2011b) Soil carbon sequestration for climate change mitigation and food security, 24th November–3rd December, 2011. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, p 322Google Scholar
- Srinivasarao Ch, Venkateswarlu B, Dinesh Babu M, Wani SP, Dixit Sreenath, Sahrawat KL, Kundu Sumanta (2011c) Soil health improvement with glyricidia green leaf manuring in rainfed agriculture. Central Research Institute for Dryland Agriculture, Hyderabad, p 23Google Scholar
- Sundermeier A, Reeder R, Lal R (2005) Soil Carbon Sequestration–Fundamentals. Extension Factsheet AEX-510-05, Ohio State University Extension pp 510–505Google Scholar