Investigating the link between carbon dioxide emissions and transport-related social exclusion in rural Northern Ireland

  • M. KamruzzamanEmail author
  • J. Hine
  • T. Yigitcanlar
Original Paper


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is considered the most harmful of the greenhouse gases. Despite policy efforts, transport is the only sector experiencing an increase in the level of CO2 emissions and thereby possesses a major threat to sustainable development. In contrast, a reduced level of mobility has been associated with an increasing risk of being socially excluded. However, despite being the two key elements in transport policy, little effort has so far been made to investigate the links between CO2 emissions and social exclusion. This research contributes to this gap by analysing data from 157 weekly activity-travel diaries collected in rural Northern Ireland. CO2 emission levels were calculated using average speed models for different modes of transport. Regression analyses were then conducted to identify the socio-spatial patterns associated with these CO2 emissions, mode choice behaviour, and patterns of participation in activities. This research found that despite emitting a higher level of CO2, groups in rural areas possess the risk of being socially excluded due to their higher levels of mobility.


Activity participation Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions Northern Ireland Sustainable transport Sustainable development Transport disadvantage Travel behaviour 



We acknowledge and cordially thank the Editor-in-Chief and the two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments and insightful suggestions, which helped us to improve the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Islamic Azad University (IAU) 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Civil Engineering and the Built EnvironmentQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.School of the Built EnvironmentUniversity of UlsterNewtownabbeyNorthern Ireland, UK

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