Skip to main content

Preparation of polyaniline based nanocomposite material and their environmental applications


This present paper reports the synthesis and environmental applications of conducting polyaniline-Sn(IV)tungstomolybdate nanocomposite. The material was synthesized via a very simple chemical route and characterized by using various instrumental techniques. Physicochemical properties, pH titrations, and elution behavior were studied to exploit the ion-exchange capability of nanocomposite. Electrical conducting studies were performed by using 4-in-line-probe (Direct Current) electrical conductivity measuring instrument. The conductivity of the material was found to be in the range of semiconductor’s. Distribution coefficient values were measured in demineralized water and varying concentration of dimethyl sulfoxide, and on the basis of partition coefficient values, the material was found to be selective for Pb2+ ions. This nanocomposite material has been fruitfully applied for the treatment of heavy metals from synthetic mixture and industrial waste water samples. The limit of detection and the limit of quantification for Pb2+ ion were found to be 0.97 and 3.24 μg L−1, respectively. The material was also tested for antimicrobial activity, and it was found that besides its use as an ion-exchange material, polyaniline-Sn(IV)tungstomolybdate is successfully used as an antimicrobial agent and as well as semiconductor.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  • Akieh MN, Lahtinen M, Vaisanen A, Sillanp M (2008) Preparation and characterization of sodium iron titanate ion exchanger and its application in heavy metal removal from waste waters. J Hazard Mater 152:640–647

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bag S, Trikalitis PN, Chupas PJ, Armatas GS, Kanatzidis MG (2007) Porous semiconducting gels and aerogels from chalcogenide clusters. Science 317:490–493

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bushra R, Shahadat M, Nabi SA, Raeissi AS (2012) Development of nano-composite adsorbent for removal of heavy metals from industrial effluent and synthetic mixtures; its conducting behaviour. Desalination 289:1–11

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bushra R, Shahadat M, Ahmad A, Nabi SA et al (2014) Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and applications of polyanilineTi(IV)arsenophosphate adsorbent for the analysis of organic and inorganic pollutants. J Hazard Mater 264:481–489

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Clarkson TW (1986) Effects—general principles underlying the toxic action of metals. In: Nordberg GF, Vouk V, Friberg L (eds) Handbook on the toxicology of metals, vol 1, 2nd edn. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 85–127

    Google Scholar 

  • European Commission, Regulation (EC) (2006) No 1881/2006. JOL 364 pp 5–24

  • Figueroa E (2008) Are more restrictive food cadmium standards justifiable health safety measures or opportunistic barriers to trade? An answer from economics and public Health. Sci Total Environ 389:1–9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gupta VK, Pathania D, Singh P (2014) Pectin–cerium (IV) tungstate nanocomposite and its adsorptional activity for removal of methylene blue dye. Int J Env Sci Tech. 11(7):2015–2024

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hafez MA, Kenway MM, Akl MA, Lshein RR (2001) Preconcentration and separation of total mercury in environmental samples using chemically modified chloromethylated polystyrene-PAN (ion-exchanger) and its determination by cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Talanta 53:749–760

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hojati S, Landi A (2014) Kinetics and thermodynamics of zinc removal from a metal-plating wastewater by adsorption onto an Iranian sepiolite. Int J Env Sci Tech. doi: 10.1007/s 13762-014-0672-2

  • Inamuddin Ismail YA (2010) Synthesis and characterization of electrically conducting poly-o-methoxyaniline Zr(1 V) molybdate Cd(II) selective composite cation-exchanger. Desalination 250:523–529

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khan MA, Bushra R, Ahmad A, Nabi SA, Khan DA, Akhtar A (2014) Ion exchangers as adsorbents for removing metals from aquatic media. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 66:259–269

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kurniawan TA, Chan GYS, Wai-Hung Lo, Babel S (2006) Physico-chemical treatment techniques for wastewater laden with heavy metals. Chem Eng J 118:83–98

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lin YH (2014) Modeling chromium(VI) reduction by Escherichia coli 33456 using ceramic pearl as a supporting medium. Int J Env Sci Tech. 11(7):1887–1896

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mohamed Jaffer Sadiq M, Samson Nesaraj A (2014) Development of NiO-Co3O4 nano-ceramic composite materials as novel photocatalysts to degrade organic contaminants present in water. Int J Environ Res 8(4):1171–1184

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Nabi SA, Naushad Mu, Bushra R (2009) Synthesis and characterization of a new organic-inorganic Pb2+ selective composite cation exchanger, acrylonitrile stannic(IV)tungstate and its analytical applications. Chem Eng J 152:80–87

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nabi SA, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Shalla AH, Ahmed F (2010) Development of composite ion-exchange adsorbent for pollutants removal from environmental wastes. Chem Eng J 165:405–412

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nabi SA, Shahadat M, Bushra R, Shalla AH (2011a) Heavy-metals separation from industrial effluent, natural water as well as from synthetic mixture using synthesized novel composite adsorbent. Chem Eng J 175:8–16

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nabi SA, Bushra R, Shahadat M (2011b) Removal of toxic metal ions by using composite cation-exchange material. J Appl Polym Sci 125(5):3439–3445

    Google Scholar 

  • NTP (National Toxicology Program) (2002) 10th report on carcinogens. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Washington, DC, U.S

    Google Scholar 

  • Poyraz B, Taspinar F (2014) Analysis, assesment and principal component analysis of heavy metals in drinking waters of industrialized region of Turkey. Int J Environ Res 8(4):1261–1270

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Saberi R, Nilchi A, Rasoli Garmarodi S, Zarghami R (2010) Adsorption characteristic of from aqueous solution using PAN-based sodium titanosilicate composite. J Radioanal Nucl Chem 284:461–469

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahadat M, Bushra R, Khan R, Rafatullah M, Teng TT (2014) A comparative study for the characterization of polyaniline based nanocomposites and membrane properties. RSC Adv 4:20686–20692

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Singh SR, Singh AP (2012) Treatment of water containg chromium (VI) using rice husk carbon as a new low cost adsorbent. Int J Environ Res 6(4):917–924

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Su SJ, Kuramoto N (2000) Processable polyaniline–titanium dioxide nanocomposites: effect of titanium dioxide on the conductivity. Synth Met 2(114):147–153

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Topp NE, Pepper KW (1949) Studies on new composite material polyaniline zirconium (IV) tungstophosphate Th(IV) selective cation exchanger. J Chem Soc 690:3299–3303

  • Vander Oost R, Beyer J, Verneykebm NPE (2003) Fish bioaccumulation and biomarkers in environmental risk assessment. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 13:57–149

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vatutsina OM, Soldatov VS, Sokolova VI et al (2007) A new hybrid (polymer/inorganic) fibrous sorbent for arsenic removal from drinking water. Funct Polym 67:184–201

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xu JC, Liu WM, Li HL (2005) Titanium dioxide doped polyaniline. Mater Sci Eng C 4(25):444–447

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yang H, Rose NL (2003) Distribution of Hg in the lake sediments across the UK, Sci Total Environ 304(1–3):391–404

Download references


The authors are gratefully acknowledged the financial and technical support from Aligarh Muslim University and Universiti Sains Malaysia. One of the authors is grateful to the Universiti Sains Malaysia, for providing financial assistance through USM RU Grant (Grant Number 1001/PKIMIA/815099) for this work.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to R. Bushra.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material 1 (DOC 198 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Bushra, R., Shahadat, M., Khan, M.A. et al. Preparation of polyaniline based nanocomposite material and their environmental applications. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 3635–3642 (2015).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Antimicrobial
  • Fabrication
  • Hybrid
  • Metal ions
  • Remediation
  • Wastewater