Skip to main content

Analysis of aerodynamic sound noise generated by a large-scaled wind turbine and its physiological evaluation

Abstract

Aerodynamic noise generated from a modern large-scale wind turbine was measured and analyzed from an engineering point of view. The measurement items were the sound, the sound pressure level (including the infrasound with extremely low-frequency band) and the corresponding physiological evaluation. Fifteen test subjects received various sound stimuli, including the recorded aerodynamic noise and a synthetic periodical sound, were examined with an electroencephalogram as a physiological evaluation. It was observed from the mapping patterns of brain waves that alpha 1 rhythm, which indicates a relaxed and concentrated state, after the sound stimulus with the frequency band of 20 Hz, showed the lowest value among the other cases. That is, the test subjects cannot keep relaxed and their concentration after hearing the sound stimulus at the frequency band of 20 Hz. The induced rate of alpha 1 rhythm almost decreased when the test subjects listened to all the sound stimuli, and further decreased with decreased frequency. Meanwhile, beta 1 rhythm, which shows a strain state, after the sound stimulus with the frequency band of 20 Hz, showed the highest value among the other cases. Therefore, the infrasound (e.g., low frequency and inaudible for human hearing) was considered to be an annoyance to the technicians who work in close proximity to a modern large-scale wind turbine.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  • Baath LB (2013) Noise spectra from wind turbines. Renew Energy 57:512–519

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bjorkman M (2004) Long time measurements of noise from wind turbines. J Sound Vib 277:567–572

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen J, Wang Q, Shen WZ, Pang X, Li S, Guo X (2013) Structural optimization study of composite wind turbine blade. Mater Des 46:247–255

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Genescà M, Romeu J, Pàmies T, Sánchez A (2009) Real time aircraft fly-over noise discrimination. J Sound Vib 323:112–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Genescà M, Romeu J, Pàmies T, Solé J (2013) On the use of a linear microphone array to measure wind turbine aerodynamic noise. Wind Energy 16:65–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ghoshal A, Sundaresan MJ, Schulz MJ, Pai PF (2000) Structural health monitoring techniques for wind turbine blades. J Wind Eng Ind Aerod 85:305–324

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Giguere P, Selig M (1997) Low Reynolds number airfoils for small horizontal axis wind turbines. Wind Energy 21(6):367–380

    Google Scholar 

  • Göçmen T, Özerdem B (2012) Airfoil optimization for noise emission problem and aerodynamic performance criterion on small scale wind turbines. Energy 46:62–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodin P, Ciorciari J, Baker K, Carey A-M, Harper M, Kaufman J (2012) A high-density EEG investigation into steady state binaural beat stimulation. PLoS ONE 7(4):e34789. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0034789

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hansen M (2007) Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines. Wind Energy 10:551–577

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hubbard HH, Shepherd KP (1991) Aeroacoustics of large wind turbines. J Acoust Soc Am 89:2495–2508

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Japanese-Government (1998) Ministry of the environment (government of japan). Environmental quality standards for noise. Environment Agency Notification, 64

  • Jaskelevicius B, Užpelkiene N (2008) Research and assessment of wind turbine’s noise in Vydmantai. J Environ Eng Landsc Manag 16:76–82

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jowder FAL (2009) Wind power analysis and site matching of wind turbine generators in Kingdom of Bahrain. Appl Energy 86:538–545

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kim B, Kim W, Lee S, Bae S, Lee Y (2013) Development and verification of a performance based optimal design software for wind turbine blades. Renew Energy 54:166–172

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee S, Kim K, Choi W, Lee S (2011) Annoyance caused by amplitude modulation of wind turbine noise. Noise Control Eng J 59:38–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee J, Son E, Hwang B, Lee S (2013a) Blade pitch angle control for aerodynamic performance optimization of a wind farm. Renew Energy 54:124–127

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee S, Lee S, Ryi J, Choi JS (2013b) Design optimization of wind turbine blades for reduction of airfoil self-noise. J Mech Sci Technol 27(2):413–418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lercher P (1996) Environmental noise and health: an integrated research perspective. Environ Int 22:117–128

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malhotra P, Hyers RW, Manwell JF, McGowan JG (2012) A review and design study of blade testing systems for utility-scale wind turbines. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 16:284–292

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nagai BM, Ameku K, Roy JN (2009) Performance of a 3 kw wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system. Appl Energy 86:1774–1779

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oerlemans S, Sijtsma P, Lo´pez BM (2007) Location and quantification of noise sources on a wind turbine. J Sound Vib 299:869–883

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen E (2011) Health aspects associated with wind turbine noise-results from three field studies. Noise Control Eng J 59:47–53

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen E, Waye KP (2004) Perception and annoyance due to wind turbine noise—a dose–response relationship. J Acoust Soc Am 116:3460–3470

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen E, Waye KP (2007) Wind turbine noise, annoyance and self-reported health and well-being in different living environments. J Occup Environ Med 64:480–486

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen E, Waye KP (2008) Wind turbines—low level noise sources interfering with restoration? Environ Res Lett 3(1):1–5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pedersen E, Berg F, Bakker R (2009) Response to noise from modern wind farms in the Netherlands. J Acoust Soc Am 126(2):634–643

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pratumnopharat P, Leung PS, Court RS (2013) Extracting fatigue damage parts from the stress–time history of horizontal axis wind turbine blades. Renew Energy 58:115–126

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tascikaraoglu A, Uzunoglu M, Vural B, Erdinc O (2011) Power quality assessment of wind turbines and comparison with conventional legal regulations: a case study in turkey. Appl Energy 88:1864–1869

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Van den Berg GP (2008) Wind turbine power and sound in relation to atmospheric stability. Wind Energy 11:151–169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vick B, Broneske S (2013) Effect of blade flutter and electrical loading on small wind turbine noise. Renew Energy 50:1044–1049

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Watson SJ, Xiang BJ, Yang W, Tavner PJ, Crabtree CJ (2010) Condition monitoring of the power output of wind turbine generators using wavelets. IEEE Trans Energy Conver 25:715–721

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Waye PK, Ohrstrom E (2002) Psycho-acoustical characters of relevance for annoyance of wind turbine noise. J Sound Vib 250:65–71

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Will U, Berg E (2007) Brain wave synchronization and entrainment to periodic acoustic stimuli. Neurosci Lett 424:55–60

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang B, Sun D (2013) Testing, inspecting and monitoring technologies for wind turbine blades: a survey. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 22:515–526

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yen J, Ahmed NA (2013) Enhancing vertical axis wind turbine by dynamic stall control using synthetic jets. J Wind Eng Ind Aerodyn 114:12–16

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang P, Ding H, Le C, Liu X (2012) Test on the dynamic response of the offshore wind turbine structure with the large-scale bucket foundation. Proc Environ Sci 12:856–863

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors want to present thanks to Mr. Kei Miyauchi, Ms. Nur Akmal Binti Haniffah and Ms. Airi Watanabe for helping to gather relevant information.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Y. Li.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Inagaki, T., Li, Y. & Nishi, Y. Analysis of aerodynamic sound noise generated by a large-scaled wind turbine and its physiological evaluation. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 12, 1933–1944 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-014-0581-4

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13762-014-0581-4

Keywords

  • Infrasound noise
  • Aerodynamic noise
  • Wind turbine
  • Environmental impact assessment
  • Electroencephalogram
  • Physiological evaluation