The headache in the adolescent population is one of the most common conditions that doctors deal with. It is an important source of disability with several health-related considerations. The aim of the study was to investigate the frequency, as well as different epidemiological and clinical characteristics, of primary headaches in adolescents. An epidemiological study was conducted on 1800 adolescents of both sexes based on a questionnaire consisting of 65 questions referring to sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of headaches. Based on the questionnaire information, the examinees were divided into four groups: adolescents with migraine, tension-type and mixed headache and the fourth group were examinees without headaches. The information was statistically processed and the level of significance < 0.05 is considered statistically significant. Out of 1800 respondents, 1160 subjects were those with headache (64.4%) and 640 subjects were without headache (35.6%). The most common primary headache is tension-type headache. The majority of subjects with tension-type headaches attend elementary school and with migraine and mixed headaches high school. There were significantly more headaches among adolescents who had their own computer and who spent more than 2 h using it. More frequent headaches were found in those who travel by public transport and spend more time on Facebook. Primary headaches in adolescent population occur frequently and despite numerous studies, they are still not taken seriously enough. It is necessary to educate parents, teachers and adolescents to avoid risk factors or at least reduce their impact.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Tavasoli A, Aghamohammadpoor M, Taghibeigi M (2013) Migraine and tension-type headache in children and adolescents presenting to neurology clinics. Iran J Pediatr 23:536–540
Kernick D, Reinhold D (2008) Children and adolescents with headache: what do they need? J Headache Pain 9:233–236. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10194-008-0042-x
Đuranović V, Bošnjak-Mejaški V (2005) Glavobolje u dječjoj dobi. In: Demarin V (ed) Znanstveni pristup dijagnostici i terapiji glavobolja. HAZU, Zagreb, pp 139–156
Kröner-Herwig B, Morris L, Heinrich M (2007) Biopsychosocial correlates of headache: what predicts pediatric headache occurrence? Headache 48:529–544. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2007.00945.x
Đuranović V, Mejaški-Bošnjak V, Lujić L, Krakar G (2005) Glavobolje u djetinjstvu i adolescenciji. Medix 59:81–85
Blume HK (2017) Childhood headache: a brief review. Pediatr Ann 46:155–165. https://doi.org/10.3928/19382359-20170321-02
Tonini MC, Frediani F (2012) Headache at high school: clinical characteristics and impact. Neurol Sci 33:185–187. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-012-1080-3
Papetti L, Capuano A, Tarantino S, Vigevano F, Valeriani M (2015) Headache as an emergency in children and adolescents. Curr Pain Headache Rep 19:3. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-015-0480-5
Headache Classification Committee of the International Headache Society (IHS) (2013) The International Classification of Headache Disorders, 3rd edition (beta version). Cephalalgia 33:629–808. https://doi.org/10.1177/0333102413485658
Matar AK, Kerem NC, Srugo I, Genizi J (2015) Primary headache in children and adolescents–diagnosis and tretment. Harefuah 154:795–798
Jeong YJ, Lee YT, Lee IG, Han JY (2018) Primary headaches in children and adolescents—experiences at a single headache center in Korea. BMC Neurol 18:70. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1073-9
Abu-Arafeh I (2014) Diagnosis and management of headache in children and adolescents. Prog Neurol Psychiatry 18:16–20. https://doi.org/10.1002/pnp.338
Sedlic M, Mahovic D, Kruzliak P (2016) Epidemiology of primary headaches among 1,876 adolescents: a cross-sectional survey. Pain Med 17:353–359. https://doi.org/10.1093/pm/pnv033
Özge A, Faedda N, Abu-Arafeh I, Gelfand AA, Goadsby PJ, Cuvellier JC, Valeriani M, Sergeev A, Barlow K, Uludüz D, Yalın OÖ, Lipton RB, Rapoport A, Guidetti V (2017) Experts’ opinion about the primary headache diagnostic criteria of the ICHD-3rd edition beta in children and adolescents. J Headache Pain 18:109. https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-017-0818-y
Lay CL, Broner SW (2008) Adolescent issues in migraine: a focus on menstrual migraine. Curr Pain Headache Rep 12:384–387. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-008-0065-7
Mitsikostas DD, Ashina M, Craven A, Diener HC, Goadsby PJ, Ferrari MD, Lampl C, Paemeleire K, Pascual J, Siva A, Olesen J, Osipova V, Martelletti P, EHF committee (2015) European Headache Federation consensus on technical investigation for primary headachedisorders. J Headache Pain 17:5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s10194-016-0596-y
Bougea A, Spantideas N, Chrousos GP (2018) Stress management for headaches in children and adolescents: a review and practical recommendations for health promotion programs and well-being. J Child Health Care 22:19–33. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367493517738123
Kelly M, Strelzik J, Langdon R, DiSabella M (2018) Pediatric headache: overview. Curr Opin Pediatr 30:748–754. https://doi.org/10.1097/MOP.0000000000000688
Gofshteyn JS, Stephenson DJ (2016) Diagnosis and Management of Childhood Headache. Curr Probl Pediatr Adolesc Health Care 46:36–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2015.11.003
Vuković V, Plavec D, Pavelin S, Janculjak D, Ivanković M, Demarin V (2010) Prevalence of migraine, probable migraine and tension-type headache in the Croatian polulation. Neuroepidemiology 35:59–65. https://doi.org/10.1159/000310940
Vuković-Cvetković V, Plavec D, Lovrenčić-Huzjan A (2013) Prevalence of chronic headache in Croatia. Biomed Res Int 2013:837613. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/837613
Unalp A, Dirik E, Kurul S (2007) Prevalence and clinical findings of migraine and tension-type headache in adolescents. Pediatr Int 49:943–949. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1442-200X.2007.02484.x
Lima AS, de Araújo RC, Gomes MR, de Almeida LR, de Souza GF, Cunha SB, Pitangui AC (2014) Prevalence of headache and its interference in the activities of daily living in female adolescent students. Rev Paul Pediatr 32:256–261. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-0582201432212113
Fallahzadeh H, Alihaydari M (2011) Prevalence of migraine and tension type headache among school children in Yazd, Iran. J Pediatr Neurosci 6:106–109. https://doi.org/10.4103/1817-1745.92818
Zwart JA, Dyb G, Holmen TL, Stovner LJ, Sand T (2004) The prevalence of migraine and tension-type headaches among adolescents in Norway. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (Head-HUNT-Youth), a large population-based epidemiologicalstudy. Cephalalgia 24:373–379. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2982.2004.00680.x
Parke M (2003) Are married parents really better for children? What research says about the effects of family structure on child well-being. Clasp Center for Law and Social Policy https://docplayer.net/28899373-Are-married-parents-really-better-for-children-what-research-says-about-the-effects-of-family-structure-on-child-well-being.html. Accessed 13 May 2019
Straube A, Heinen F, Ebinger F, von Kries R (2013) Headache in school children: prevalence and risk factors. Dtsch Arztebl Int 110:811-818. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2013.0811
Becker Saueressig I, Andrade Xavier MK, Mayaly Alves Oliveira V, Rodarti Pitangui AC, Cappato de Araújo R (2015) Primary headaches among adolescents and their association with excessive computer use. Revista Dor 16:244–248. https://doi.org/10.5935/1806-0013.20150049
Valkenburg PM, Peter J (2011) Online communication among adolescents: an integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. J Adolesc Health 48(2):121–127. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2010.08.020
Drummond PD (2005) Triggers of motion sickness in migraine sufferers. Headache 45:653–656. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4610.2005.05132.x
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee (University Clinical Hospital Mostar) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants/parents included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Mlinarevic-Polic, I., Kuzman, Z., Aleric, I. et al. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of primary headaches in adolescent population: is there a relationship with the way of life?. Acta Neurol Belg 121, 473–481 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-019-01220-5
- Adolescent population
- Way of life