Skip to main content

Uncommon and/or bizarre features of dementia: Part III

Abstract

Clinical neurologists have long recognized that dementia can present as atypical or variant syndromes/symptoms. This study aimed at describing uncommon or bizarre symptoms/syndromes observed in patients suffering from dementia. Medline and Google scholar searches were conducted for relevant articles, chapters, and books published before 2018. Search terms used included compulsion, dementia, extracampine hallucination, disordered gambling, humour, and obsession. Publications found through this indexed search were reviewed for further relevant references. The uncommon/bizarre feature of dementia was described as case reports and there were no systematic investigations.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. Cipriani G, Danti S, Carlesi C (2016) Three men in a (same) boat: Alzheimer, Pick, Lewy. Historical notes. Eur Geriatr Med 7:526–530

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Cipriani G, Borin G (2015) Understanding dementia in the sociocultural context: a review. Int J Soc Psychiatry 61:198–204

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Galton CJ, Patterson K, Xuereb JH, Hodges JR (2000) Atypical and typical presentations of Alzheimer’s disease: a clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathological study of 13 cases. Brain 123(Pt 3)484–498

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Croot K, Hodges JR, Xuereb J, Patterson K (2000) Phonological and articulatory impairment in Alzheimer’s disease: a case series. Brain Lang 75:277–309

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Cipriani G, Lucetti C, Danti S, Ulivi M, Nuti A (2015) Uncommon and/or bizarre features of dementia. Acta Neurol Belg 115:19–25

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Cipriani G, Danti S, Nuti A, Lucetti C, Di Fiorino M (2018) Uncommon and/or bizarre features of dementia. Part II. Acta Neurol Belg. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0913-0

  7. Ffytche DH, Creese B, Politis M, Chaudhuri KR, Weintraub D, Ballard C, Aarsland D (2017) The psychosis spectrum in Parkinson disease. Nat Rev Neurol 13:81–95

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  8. Bleuler E (1903) Extracampine Hallucinationen. Psychiatrisch-Neurologische Wochenschrift 25:261–264

    Google Scholar 

  9. Sato Y, Berrios GE (2003) Extracampine hallucinations. Lancet 26:1479–1480

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Jaspers K (1913) Über leibhaftige Bewußtheiten (Bewußtheitstaüschungen), ein psychopathologisches Elementarsymptom. Z Pathopsychol 2:150–161

    Google Scholar 

  11. Fénelon G, Soulas T, Cleret De Langavant L, Trinkler I, Bachoud-Lévi AC (2011) Feeling of presence in Parkinson’s disease. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 82:1219–1224

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  12. Fenelon G, Mahieux F, Huon R, Ziegler M (2000) Hallucinations in Parkinson’s disease: prevalence, phenomenology and risk factors. Brain 123:733–745

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. McDonald I (2006) Musical alexia with recovery: a personal account. Brain 129:2554–2561

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Solomonova E, Nielsen T, Stenstrom P, Simard V, Frantova E, Donderi D (2008) Sensed presence as a correlate of sleep paralysis distress, social anxiety and waking state social imagery. Conscious Cogn 17:49–63

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Zijlmans M, van Eijsden P, Ferrier CH, Kho KH, van Rijen PC, Leijten FS (2009) Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 80:686–688

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Taylor MA, Vaidya NA (2008) Descriptive psychopathology. The signs and symptoms of behavioral disorders. University Press, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  17. Llorca PM, Pereira B, Jardri R, Chereau-Boudet I, Brousse G, Misdrahi D, Fénelon G, Tronche AM, Schwan R, Lançon C, Marques A, Ulla M, Derost P, Debilly B, Durif F, de Chazeron I (2016) Hallucinations in schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease: an analysis of sensory modalities involved and the repercussion on patients. Sci Rep 6:38152

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. Chan D, Rossor MN (2002) “—but who is that on the other side of you?” Extracampine hallucinations revisited. Lancet 360:2064–2066

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Ryan NS, Shakespeare TJ, Lehmann M, Keihaninejad S, Nicholas JM, Leung KK, Fox NC, Crutch SJ (2014) Motor features in posterior cortical atrophy and their imaging correlates. Neurobiol Aging 35:2845–2857

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  20. Braak H, Braak E (1995) Staging of Alzheimer’s disease-related neurofibrillary changes. Neurobiol Aging 16:271–278

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. de Haan S, Rietveld E, Denys D (2013) On the nature of obsessions and compulsions. Mod Trends Pharmacopsychiatry 29:1–15

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Koran LM, Hanna GL, Hollander E, Nestadt G, Simpson HB; American Psychiatric Association (2007) Practice guideline for the treatment of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Am J Psychiatry 164(7 Suppl):5–53

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Spitzer M, Sigmund (1997) The phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Int Rev Psychiatry 9:7–13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Leckman JF, Bloch MH, King RA (2009) Symptom dimensions and subtypes of obsessive-compulsive disorder: a developmental perspective. Dialogues Clin Neurosci 11:21–33

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  25. Salkovskis PM (1985) Obsessional-compulsive problems: a cognitive-behavioural analysis. Behav Res Ther 23:571–584

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. Salkovskis PM (1999) Understanding and treating obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behav Res Ther 37:S29–S52

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. O’Connor KP (2002) Intrusions and inferences in obsessive compulsive disorder. Clin Psychol Psychother 9:38–46

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Palumbo D, Kurlan R (2007) Complex obsessive compulsive and impulsive symptoms in Tourette’s syndrome. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 3:687–693

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  29. Cipriani G, Vedovello M, Ulivi M, Nuti A, Lucetti C (2013) Repetitive and stereotypic phenomena and dementia. Am J Alzheimers Dis Other Demen 28:223–227

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Denys D (2011) Obsessionality & compulsivity: a phenomenology of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Philos Ethics Humanit Med 6:3

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. Sharpe M, Baldwin D, Walker J (2010) Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders. In: Johnstone EC (ed) Companion to psychiatric studies, 8th edn. Elsevier, New York, pp 453–491

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  32. Veale D (2014) Obsessive-compulsive disorder. BMJ 348:g2183

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Fornaro M, Gabrielli F, Albano C, Fornaro S, Rizzato S, Mattei C, Solano P, Vinciguerra V, Fornaro P (2009) Obsessive-compulsive disorder and related disorders: a comprehensive survey. Ann Gen Psychiatry 18:13

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th end. American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC (text revision)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  35. Pick A (1892) Über die Beziehung der senilen Hirnatrophie zur Aphasie. Prager Medicinische Wochenschrift 17:165–167

    Google Scholar 

  36. Mendez MF, Perryman KM, Miller BL, Swartz JR, Cummings JL (1997) Compulsive behaviors as presenting symptoms of frontotemporal dementia. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 10:154–157

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Santibanez R, Sepehry A, Feldman H, Hsiung G-Y (2016) Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with late-onset obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCs): an individual-patient data meta-analysis. American Academy of Neurology, Annual Meeting: p 6.246. http://www.abstractsonline.com/pp8/#%21/4046/presentation/5541%E2%80%8B. Accessed 12 Dec 2017

  38. Fukui T, Lee E, Hosoda H, Okita K (2010) Obsessive-compulsive behavior as a symptom of dementia in progressive supranuclear palsy. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 30:179–188

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. Tolosa E, Valldeoriola F, Pastor P (2002) Progressive supranuclear palsy. In: Jankovic J, Tolosa E (eds) Parkinson disease and movement disorders, 4th edn. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 152–169

    Google Scholar 

  40. Scicutella A (2000) Late-life obsessive-compulsive disorder and Huntington’s disease. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 12:288–289

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. Cummings JL, Cunningham K (1992) Obsessive-compulsive disorder in Huntington’s disease. Biol Psychiatry 31(3):263–720

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. Larner AJ (2007) Gamling. ACNR 7:25–26

    Google Scholar 

  43. Global Betting and Gaming Consultants (2016) GBGC’s global gambling report 2016. http://www.gbgc.com/gbgcs-global-gambling-report-2016. Accessed 12 Dec 2017

  44. Cipriani G, Cammisuli DM, Danti S, Di Fiorino M (2016) Disordered gambling and dementia. Eur Geriatr Med 7:474–478

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Pietrzak RH, Morasco BJ, Blanco C, Grant BF, Petry NM (2007) Gambling level and psychiatric and medical disorders in older adults: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. A J Geriatr Psychiatry 15:301–313

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Grant JE, Kim SW, Odlaug BL, Buchanan SN, Potenza MN (2009) Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences. J Psychiatr Res 43:380–387

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Brandt L, Fischer G (2017) Adult ADHD is associated with gambling severity and psychiatric comorbidity among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. J Atten Disord 1:1087054717690232

    Google Scholar 

  48. Jiménez-Murcia S, Steiger H, Isräel M, Granero R, Prat R, Santamaría JJ, Moragas L, Sánchez I, Custal N, Orekhova L, Fagundo AB, Menchón J, Fernández-Aranda F (2013) Pathological gambling in eating disorders: prevalence and clinical implications. Compr Psychiatry 54:1053–1060

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Desai RA, Desai MM, Potenza MN (2007) Gambling, health and age: data from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Psychol Addict Behav 21:431–440

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Kessler RC, Hwang I, LaBrie R, Petukhova M, Sampson NA, Winters KC, Shaffer HJ (2008) DSM-IV pathological gambling in the national comorbidity survey replication. Psychol Med 38:1351–1360

    PubMed  PubMed Central  CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. Subramaniam M, Wang P, Soh P, Vaingankar J, Chong S, Browning C, Thomas SA (2015) Prevalence and determinants of gambling disorder among older adults: a systematic review. Addict Behav 41:199–209

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Plastino M, Messina D, Cristiano D, Lombardo G, Bosco D (2015) Pathological gambling associated with CADASIL: an unusual manifestation. Neurol Sci 36:1963–1965

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Stocchi F (2005) Pathological gambling in Parkinson’s disease. Lancet Neurol 4:590–592

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Lo Coco D, Nacci P (2004) Frontotemporal dementia presenting with pathological gambling. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 16:117–118

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Nakaaki S, Murata Y, Sato J, Shinagawa Y, Hongo J, Tatsumi H, Mimura M, Furukawa TA (2007) Impairment of decision-making cognition in a case of frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) presenting with pathologic gambling and hoarding as the initial symptoms. Cogn Behav Neurol 20:121–125

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Manes FF, Torralva T, Roca M, Gleichgerrcht E, Bekinschtein TA, Hodges JR (2010) Frontotemporal dementia presenting as pathological gambling. Nat Rev Neurol 6:347–352

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Ozel-Kizil E, Sakarya A, Arica B, Haran S (2013) A case of frontotemporal dementia with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis presenting with pathological gambling. J Clin Neurol 9:133–137

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  58. Cimminella F, Ambra FI, Vitaliano S, Iavarone A, Garofalo E (2015) Early-onset frontotemporal dementia presenting with pathological gambling. Acta Neurol Belg 115:759–761

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Tondo G, De Marchi F, Terazzi E, Sacchetti M, Cantello R (2017) frontotemporal dementia presenting as gambling disorder: when a psychiatric condition is the clue to a neurodegenerative disease. Cogn Behav Neurol 30:62–67

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Dubois B, Slachevsky A, Litvan I, Pillon B (2000) The FAB: a frontal assessment battery at bedside. Neurology 55:1621–1626

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. Dham P, Larsen A, Baigent M (2015) Exposure based therapy for problem gambling in a patient with Alzheimer’s dementia. Australas Psychiatry 23:510–512

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12:189–198

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Mak W, Carpenter BD (2007) Humor comprehension in older adults. J Int Neuropsych Soc 13:606–614

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Moran JM, Wig GS, Adams RB Jr, Janata P, Kelley WM (2004) Neural correlates of humor detection and appreciation. Neuroimage 21:1055–1060

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Gelkopf M (2011) The use of humor in serious mental illness: a review. Evid Based Complement Altern Med 2011:342837

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Irish M, Hodges JR, Piguet O (2014) Right anterior temporal lobe dysfunction underlies theory of mind impairments in semantic dementia. Brain 137:1241–1253

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Kipps CM, Nestor PJ, Acosta-Cabronero J, Arnold R, Hodges JR (2009) Understanding social dysfunction in the behavioural variant of frontotemporal dementia: the role of emotion and sarcasm processing. Brain 132:592–603

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  68. Clark CN, Nicholas JM, Gordon E, Golden HL, Cohen MH, Woodward FJ, Macpherson K, Slattery CF, Mummery CJ, Schott JM, Rohrer JD, Warren JD (2016) Altered sense of humor in dementia. J Alzheimers Dis 49:111–119

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Gabriele Cipriani.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Cipriani, G., Nuti, A., Danti, S. et al. Uncommon and/or bizarre features of dementia: Part III. Acta Neurol Belg 118, 211–216 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0936-6

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13760-018-0936-6

Keywords

  • Compulsion
  • Dementia
  • Extracampine hallucination
  • Disordered gambling
  • Humour
  • Obsession