Skip to main content

Long-term tumor control of benign intracranial tumors after Gamma Knife radiosurgery in 280 patients followed more than 5 years


The objective of the study was to assess the long-term radiological outcome of benign intracranial tumors (BIT) after Gamma Knife radiosurgery. We report the radiological outcome of 280 patients who underwent radiosurgical irradiation for BIT in a single center. Our series included 120 meningiomas, 139 vestibular schwannomas, 12 other schwannomas and 9 pituitary adenomas. Serial imaging studies were performed after irradiation for at least 5 years for all patients. The median tumor volume was 1.9 cc, and the median margin dose was 12 Gy. After a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the tumor control rate was 92.1 %: tumor decreased in 176 cases (62.9 %), remained unchanged in 82 lesions (29.3 %) and increased in 22 cases (7.9 %). The actuarial tumor control rate was 93.2 % at 5 years, 92.3 % at 7.5 years and 91.0 % at 10 years. No atypical or malignant transformation of irradiated tumors occured during the follow-up period. Gamma Knife radiosurgery provides a high rate of tumor control for BIT even in the medium to long-term.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Levivier M, Lorenzoni J, Massager N, Ruiz S, Devriendt D, Brotchi J (2003) Use of the Leksell Gamma Knife C with Automatic Positioning System for the treatment of meningioma and vestibular schwannoma. Neurosurg Focus 14:E8

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Paddick I (2000) A simple scoring ratio to index the conformity of radiosurgical treatment plans. Technical note. J Neurosurg 93(Suppl 3):219–222

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Pollock BE, Stafford EL, Utter A, Giannini C, Schreiner SA (2003) Stereotactic radiosurgery provides equivalent tumor control to Simpson grade I resection for patients with small- to medium-size meningiomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 55:1000–1005

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Kondziolka D, Nathoo N, Flickinger JC, Niranjan A, Maitz AH, Lunsford LD (2003) Long-term results after radiosurgery for benign intracranial tumors. Neurosurgery 53:815–822

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Santacroce A, Walier M, Régis J, Liscak R, Motti E, Lindquist C, Kemeny A, Kitz K, Lippitz B, Alvarez RM, Pedersen P, Yomo S, Lupidi F, Dominikus K, Blackburn P, Mindermann T, Bundschuh O, van Eck A, Fimmers R, Horstmann GA (2012) Long-term tumor control of benign intracranial meningiomas after radiosurgery in a series of 4,565 patients. Neurosurgery 70:32–39

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Pollock BE, Stafford SL, Link MJ, Brown PD, Garces YI, Foote RL (2012) Single-fraction radiosurgery of benign intracranial meningiomas. Neurosurgery 71:604–613

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Murphy ES, Barnett GH, Vogelbaum MA, Neyman G, Stevens GHJ, Cohen BH, Elson P, Vassil AD, Suh JH (2011) Long-term outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery in patients with vestibular schwannomas. J Neurosurg 114:432–440

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Chopra R, Kondziolka D, Niranjan A, Lunsford LD, Flickinger JC (2007) Long-term follow-up of acoustic schwannoma radiosurgery with marginal tumor doses of 12–13 Gy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 68:845–851

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Castinetti F, Nagai M, Morange I, Dufour H, Caron P, Chanson P, Cortet-Rudelli C, Kuhn J, Conte-Devolx B, Regis J, Brue T (2009) Long-term results of stereotactic radiosurgery in secretory pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 94:3400–3407

    PubMed  Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Park K-J, Kano H, Parry PV, Niranjan A, Flickinger JC, Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D (2011) Long-term outcome after Gamma Knife stereotactic radiosurgery for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. Neurosurgery 69:1188–1199

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors are grateful to the medical and paramedical staff that have taken part in the treatments of patients included in this study: Massimo Gerosa, Gyorgy Szeifert, Jose Salvador Ruiz, Jose Lorenzoni, Ouzi Nissim, Adyl Melhaoui, Danièle Balériaux, Philippe David, Stéphane Simon, Bruno Vanderlinden, Thierry Gevaerts, Antoine Wagner, Paul Van Houtte, Marc Levivier, Elisabeth Rios, Patricia Palacio, Arlette Dewil, Dominique Dumont, Cathy Watty, Eliane Waegener, Abida Boulaioun, Isabelle Ros and Véronique ‘Tfelt.

Conflict of interest


Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicolas Massager.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Massager, N., De Smedt, F. & Devriendt, D. Long-term tumor control of benign intracranial tumors after Gamma Knife radiosurgery in 280 patients followed more than 5 years. Acta Neurol Belg 113, 463–467 (2013).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Gamma Knife radiosurgery
  • Benign tumor
  • Long-term outcome
  • Results