Acta Neurologica Belgica

, Volume 112, Issue 2, pp 183–187 | Cite as

Sleep-related migraine occurrence increases with aging

  • Sara Gori
  • Cinzia Lucchesi
  • Nicola Morelli
  • Michelangelo Maestri
  • Enrica Bonanni
  • Luigi Murri
Original Article

Abstract

A preferential occurrence of attacks at night-time or during early morning is documented in migraine without aura, suggesting a relationship between migraine and sleep and an impairment of circadian rhythms. The objective of this study was to verify the occurrence of sleep-related migraine in a large sample of migraineurs divided in different age groups and to evaluate the possible role of physiological variables (i.e., aging, gender) and comorbidities (i.e., psychiatric diseases). 734 patients (519 women and 215 males), aged 21–70 years, fulfilling IHS criteria (2004) for migraine without aura, were enrolled. The population was divided into five groups according to decades of life and it was evaluated the percentage of sleep-related migraine (at least 75% migraine attacks occurring during night sleep and/or upon awakening) in the different age groups. Headache clinical diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Beck Depression Inventory were also used. The preferential emergence of attacks during night sleep and/or upon awakening progressively increased with aging, without gender predilection; the percentage of patients with sleep-related migraine was: 16% between 20 and 30 years, 27% between 31 and 40 years, 38% between 41 and 50 years, 45% between 51 and 60 years, and 58% between 61 and 70 years, respectively. Poor sleep quality and depression did not account for night-time and/or awakening migraine collocation. These data suggest the main role of aging in order to favor nocturnal/early morning emergence of migraine without aura and support the hypothesis of an involvement of impaired chronobiological mechanisms and sleep regulation.

Keywords

Migraine without aura Sleep Sleep-related migraine 

References

  1. 1.
    Galego JC, Cipullo JP, Cordeiro JA, Tignola WA (2002) Clinical features of episodic migraine and transformed migraine: a comparative study. Arch Neuropsiquiatr 60:912–916CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kelman L, Rains A (2005) Headache and sleep: examination of sleep pattern and complaints in a large clinical sample of migraineurs. Headache 45:904–910PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Solomon GD (1992) Circadian variation in the frequency of headache. Cleve Clin J Med 59:326–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fox AW, Davis RL (1998) Migraine chronobiology. Headache 38:436–441PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gori S, Morelli N, Maestri M, Fabbrini M, Bonanni E, Murri L (2005) Sleep quality, chronotypes and preferential timing of attacks in migraine without aura. J Headache Pain 6(4):258–260PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Mistlberger RE (2005) Circadian regulation of sleep in mammals: role of the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Brain Res Rev 49:429–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Suntsova NV, Dergacheva OY, Burikov AA (2000) The role of the posterior hypothalamus in controlling the paradoxical phase of sleep. Neurosci Behav Phisiol 30:161–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Evers S (2010) Sleep and headache: the biological basis. Headache 50:1246–1251PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Dexter JD, Weitzman ED (1970) The relationship of nocturnal headaches to sleep stage patterns. Neurology 20:513–518PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Dexter JD (1979) Relationship between stages 3 + 4 + REM sleep and arousals with migraine. Headache 19:364–369PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sahota RK, Dexter JD (1990) Sleep and headache syndromes: a clinical review. Headache 30:80–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Blau JN (1980) Migraine prodromes separated from the aura: complete migraine. BMJ 281:658–660PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Salvesen R, Bekkelund SI (2000) Migraine, as compared to other headaches, is worse during midnight-sun summer than during polar night. A questionnaire study in an artic population. Headache 40:824–829PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Alstadhaug KB, Salvesen R, Bekkelund SI (2005) Seasonal variation in migraine. Cephalalgia 25:811–816PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Denuelle M, Fabre N, Payoux P, Chollet F, Geraud G (2007) Hypothalamic activation in spontaneous migraine attacks. Headache 47:1418–1426PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bartsch T, Levy MJ, Knight YE, Goadsby PJ (2004) Differential modulation of nociceptive dural input to (hypocretin) orexin A and B receptor activation in the posterior hypothalamic area. Pain 109:367–378PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peres MFP, Zukerman E, da Cunha Tanuri F, Moreira FR, Cipolla-Neto C (2004) Melatonin, 3 mg, is effective for migraine prevention. Neurology 63:757PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Alstadhaug KB, Odeh F, Salvesen R, Bekkelund SI (2010) Prophylaxis of migraine with melatonin: a randomized controlled trial. Neurology 75:1527–1532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    American Academy of Sleep Medicine (2005). ICSD2, International Classification of Sleep Disorders. In: Diagnostic and Coding Manual (2nd edn.) American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Westchester, pp 1–288Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Headache Classification Committee of the International headache Society (2004) Classification and diagnostic criteria for headache disorders, cranial neuralgia, and facial pain. Cephalalgia 24(Suppl 1):24–25Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Buysse SR, Reynolds CF, Mouk TH, Berman SR, Kupler DJ (1989) The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index: a new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Res 28:193–213PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 4:561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lydic R, McCarley RW, Hobson JA (1983) The time-course of dorsal raphe discharge, PGO waves, and muscle tone averaged across multiple sleep cycles. Brain Res 274:365–370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Somers VK, Dyken ME, Mark AL, Abboud FM (1993) Sympathetic-nerve activity during sleep in normal subjects. N Engl J Med 328:303–307PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ralph MR, Foster RG, Davis FC, Menaker M (1990) Transplanted suprachiasmatic nucleus determines circadian period. Science 247:975–978PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bliwise DL (1993) Sleep in normal aging and dementia. Sleep 16:40–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lombardo P, Formicola G, Gori S, Gneri C, Massetani R, Murri L, Fagioli I, Salzarulo P (1998) Slow wave sleep (SWS) distribution across night sleep episode in the elderly. Aging (Milano) 10:445–448Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ficca G, Gori S, Ktonas P, Quattrini C, Trammel J, Salzarulo P (1999) The organization of rapid eye movement activity during rapid eye movement sleep is impaired in the elderly. Neurosci Lett 275(3):219–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Gori S, Ficca G, Giganti F, Di Nasso I, Murri L, Salzarulo P (2004) Body movements during night sleep in healthy elderly subjects and their relationships with sleep stages. Brain Res Bull 63:393–397PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Salzarulo P, Fagioli I, Lombardo P, Gori S, Gneri C, Chiaramonti R, Murri L (1999) Sleep stages proceeding spontaneous awakenings in the elderly. Sleep Res Online 2:73–77PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ficca G, Scavelli S, Fagioli I, Gori S, Murri L, Salzarulo P (2004) Rapid eye movement activity before spontaneous awakening in elderly subjects. J Sleep Res 13:49–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Iguichi H, Kato KI, Ibayashi H (1982) Age-dependent reduction in serum melatonin concentrations in healthy human subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 55:27–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Belgian Neurological Society 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Gori
    • 1
  • Cinzia Lucchesi
    • 1
  • Nicola Morelli
    • 1
  • Michelangelo Maestri
    • 1
  • Enrica Bonanni
    • 1
  • Luigi Murri
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurosciences, Institute of NeurologyUniversity of PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations