On the role of government in integrated disaster risk governance—Based on practices in China
Article First Online: 21 November 2012 Abstract
This article outlines the roles of government in ensuring integrated disaster risk governance in China. In general, government plays important political, economic, cultural, and social roles in risk governance systems that include resource assurance, technical support, and disaster risk management. Three key aspects of governance relate to those roles: (1) Overall leadership. Politically, the government has a leading role for the overall rule and system design, including legislation, decision-making processes, and policy implementation mechanisms. Economically, the government’s primary responsibility is to strengthen resource assurance, including coordinating development and disaster reduction, and providing support for disaster reduction activities. Culturally, the government must increase risk awareness through disaster reduction education, training, and practice of emergency response skills, disaster risk research, and technical development. Socially, the government is vital to the improvement of integrated management, including disaster, risk, and emergency management systems. (2) Engaging civil society. Politically, the government is charged with the responsibility to engage and collaborate with civil society, such as NGOs. Economically, it is the role of the government to consolidate governmental and community resources. Culturally, the government needs to give the same importance to the functions of majority and minority cultures alike. Socially, it is the duty of the government to coordinate advantaged and disadvantaged social groups. (3) International cooperation. The government has an international humanitarian role politically to carry out disaster reduction diplomacy; economically to strengthen the catastrophe financial assurance system; culturally to improve the world safety culture, disaster reduction education, and technology assurance systems; and socially to increase the capacity for international disaster relief and assistance and volunteer services.
Keywords China disaster reduction humanitarian aid integrated disaster risk governance
This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com
Beck, U. 1992.
The Risk Society: Toward a New Modernity
. London: Sage.
—. 2006. Reflexive Governance: Politics in the Global Risk Society. In
Reflexive Governance for Sustainable Development
, edited by J. VoB, D. Bauknecht, and R. Kemp, 31–56. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Biermann, F., K. Abbott, S. Andresen, K. Bäckstrand, S. Bernstein, M. M. Betsill, H. Bulkeley, B. Cashore, et al. 2012. Navigating the Anthropocene: Improving Earth System Governance.
CrossRef Google Scholar
Biermann, F., B. Siebenhüner, and A. Schreyögg. 2009.
International Organizations in Global Environmental Governance
. Abingdon, United Kingdom: Routledge.
Fan, B. J., ed. 2000.
Memoir of IDNDR in China
. Beijing: Contemporary China Publishing House (in Chinese).
IRGC (International Risk Governance Council). 2005.
Risk Governance: Towards an Integrative Approach
. White Paper No. 1. Geneva: IRGC.
An Introduction to the Risk Governance Framework
. Geneva: IRGC.
Risk Governance Deficits: An Analysis and Illustration of the Most Common Deficits in Risk Governance
. Geneva: IRGC.
Li, F., ed. 2007.
Interpretation and Practical Guidance of the Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China
. Beijing: China Democracy and Legal Affairs Publishing House (in Chinese).
People’s Republic of China (P.R.C.). General Administration of Customs. 1998.
Notice for Distributing the “Provisional Measures for Exemption of Import Duties for Goods Donated for Disaster Relief”
—. IDNDR (China National Committee for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction). 1998.
Disaster Reduction Planning of the People’s Republic of China (1998-2010)
—. Ministry of Civil Affairs. 2000.
Provisional Administrative Measures for Disaster Relief Donations
—. Ministry of Civil Affairs. 2008.
Administrative Measures for Disaster Relief Donations
—. Ministry of Finance, General Administration of Customs, and State Bureau of Taxation. 2005.
Circular on the Preferential Taxation Policies for Rescue and Salvage Units
—. National Development and Reform Commission and National Disaster Reduction Committee. 2011.
National 12th Five-Year Integrated Disaster Reduction Plan (2011–2015)
—. Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. 1999.
Welfare Donations Law of the People’s Republic of China
—. Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress. 2007.
Emergency Response Law of the People’s Republic of China
—. State Bureau of Taxation. 1994.
Notice for Taxation on Issuing Income of Bonus Donations for Social Welfare
—. State Bureau of Taxation. 1998a.
Circular on Deduction before Income Tax for Donations of Enterprises to Disaster Areas
—. State Bureau of Taxation. 1998b.
Circular on Exemption of Personal Income Tax for China Welfare Disaster Relief Lottery
—. State Council. 2006.
General Emergency Response Program for State Accidental Public Event
—. State Council. 2008.
Guidelines for Planning of Recovery and Reconstruction after Freezing Rain Disaster
—. State Council. 2010a.
Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction of Yushu Earthquake
—. State Council. 2010b.
Planning for Post-Disaster Recovery and Reconstruction of Zhouqu
—. State Council and Central Military Committee. 2008.
Regulations of the People’s Republic of China for Military Forces to Participate in Rescue and Disaster Relief
Renn, O. 2008.
Risk Governance: Coping with Uncertainty in a Complex World
. London: Earthscan.
Renn, O., A. Klinke, and M. van Asselt. 2011. Coping with Complexity, Uncertainty and Ambiguity in Risk Governance: A Synthesis.
CrossRef Google Scholar
Shi, P. J. 2009. Fifth Discussion on Theory and Practice for Systematic Studies on Disasters.
Journal of Natural Disasters
: 18(5): 1–9 (in Chinese, with English summary).
Shi, P. J., N. Li, Q. Ye, W. J. Dong, G. Y. Han, and W. H. Fang. 2010. Research on Integrated Disaster Risk Governance in the Context of Global Environmental Change.
International Journal of Disaster Risk Science
Shi, P. J., and Y. H. Liu. 2009. Chinese Paradigm for Catastrophe Risk Governance.
Journal of US-China Public Administration
Shi, P. J., L. D. Shao, Z. G. Zhao, and Q. X. Huang. 2007. On Integrated Disaster Risk Governance: Seeking for Adaptive Strategies for Globa l Change.
Earth Science Frontiers
14(6): 43–53 (in Chinese, with English summary).
Walker, G., R. Whittle, W. Medd, and N. Watson. 2010.
Risk Governance and Natural Hazards
. CapHaz-Net WP2 report.
Zheng, G. C. 2009.
State Development with Various Disasters: Epic of Disaster Resistance in the Six Decades of New China
. Changsha: Hunan People’s Publishing House (in Chinese).