Biological Theory

, Volume 11, Issue 4, pp 187–191

Evolution: Limited and Predictable or Unbounded and Lawless?


DOI: 10.1007/s13752-016-0251-5

Cite this article as:
Hordijk, W. Biol Theory (2016) 11: 187. doi:10.1007/s13752-016-0251-5


In this brief commentary I compare and contrast two different views of evolution: one of limited (convergent) evolution and mathematical predictability, and one of unbounded diversity and no entailing laws. Clearly these opposing views cannot both be true at the same time. Their disagreement seems to rest on different underlying assumptions, and the challenge is to see if they can be reconciled.


Convergence Evolution No entailing laws Predictability 

Copyright information

© Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition ResearchKlosterneuburgAustria

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