Biological Theory

, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 18–35 | Cite as

Explanatory Integration Challenges in Evolutionary Systems Biology

Thematic Section Article: Evolutionary Systems Biology

Abstract

Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) aims to integrate methods from systems biology and evolutionary biology to go beyond the current limitations in both fields. This article clarifies some conceptual difficulties of this integration project, and shows how they can be overcome. The main challenge we consider involves the integration of evolutionary biology with developmental dynamics, illustrated with two examples. First, we examine historical tensions between efforts to define general evolutionary principles and articulation of detailed mechanistic explanations of specific traits. Next, these tensions are further clarified by considering a recent case from another field focused on developmental dynamics: stem cell biology. In the stem cell case, incompatible explanatory aims block integration. Experimental approaches aim at mechanistic explanation while dynamical system models offer explanation in terms of general principles. We then discuss an ESB case in which integration succeeds: search for general attractors using a dynamical systems framework synergizes with the experimental search for detailed mechanisms. Contrasts between the positive and negative cases suggest general lessons for achieving an integrated understanding of developmental and evolutionary dynamics. The key integrative move is to acknowledge two complementary aims, both relevant to explanation: identifying the space of possible dynamic states and trajectories, and mechanistic understanding of causal interactions underlying a specific phenomenon of interest. These two aims can support one another in a joint project characterizing dynamic aspects of evolving lineages. This more inclusive project can lead to insights that cannot be reached by either approach in isolation.

Keywords

Covering laws Developmental biology Dynamical systems theory (DST) Evolutionary systems biology (ESB) Level of explanation Mechanism Stem cells 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank Orkun Soyer, Maureen O’Malley, and Sabina Leonelli for organizing the workshop on ESB and the KLI for hosting this event. We are grateful to the participants of the workshop for many fruitful discussions, and to Gerd Müller and Werner Callebaut for taking the initiative to have a thematic section based on important themes discussed at the workshop. Johannes Jaeger would like to thank Karl Wotton for the hedgehog and the fox, as well as Nick Monk and the late Brian Goodwin for countless inspiring discussions on the philosophy of science. Sara Green acknowledges support from The Danish Research Council for Independent Research/Humanities for funding to the project Philosophy of Contemporary Science in Practice. Melinda Fagan’s research on this paper was supported by the Mosle Foundation and a Faculty Innovation Fellowship from the Humanities Research Center at Rice University. Johannes Jaeger’s research group is supported by the MEC-EMBL agreement for the CRG/EMBL Research Unit in Systems Biology.

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Copyright information

© Konrad Lorenz Institute for Evolution and Cognition Research 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centre for Science Studies, Department of Physics and AstronomyAarhus UniversityAarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of PhilosophyUniversity of UtahSalt Lake CityUSA
  3. 3.EMBL/CRG Research Unit in Systems BiologyCentre de Regulació Genòmica (CRG)BarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF)BarcelonaSpain

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