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Impact of Environmental Variables on Parasitism and Emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, Telenomus remus and Telenomus podisi

Abstract

Environmental variables may markedly influence egg parasitoid performance and must be considered when choosing the best release strategy. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of light, temperature, soil moisture, and precipitation on the emergence and parasitism of parasitoid releases of unprotected and encapsulated pupae. The presence of light favored the parasitism of Trichogramma pretiosum Riley, 1879, and Telenomus remus (Nixon, 1937) but did not impact the parasitism of Telenomus podisi (Ashmead, 1893). The release strategy adopted (release of encapsulated or unprotected pupae) also impacted the results. On one hand, card capsules gave protection against rainfall, limited to 10 mm regarding Tr. pretiosum, while on the other hand, card capsules led to a reduction in the number of captured adults for Te. podisi at 25°C and 30°C. Therefore, Tr. pretiosum, Te. remus, and Te. podisi can be released using both encapsulated and unprotected pupae, with advantages and disadvantages for each strategy, depending on each studied environmental variable. In addition, parasitoid pupae should be released so that the majority emerge during daylight, especially for Te. remus and Tr. pretiosum, since parasitism was greatly reduced in dark environments. Telenomus podisi is not affected by this variable as it demonstrated similar parasitism in light and dark environments.

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Acknowledgements

Thanks are extended to Dr Valmir Antônio Costa (Instituto Biológico de Campinas) for parasitoid identification and to Adair Vicente Carneiro for drawing Figs. 1 and 2. Thanks are also extended to Dra Graziela Moraes de Cesare Barbosa (IDR/Paraná) for allowing the use of the rain simulator in this research.

Funding

The authors thank Embrapa Soja, the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES), and the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) (grants 402797/2016-7 and 302645/2018-7) for their financial support and fellowships.

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MLM Grande, A F. Bueno, and MU Ventura contributed to the study conception and design. AP de Queiroz, J Gonçalves, and R Hayashida contributed to the data collection and analysis. MLM Grande wrote the first draft of the manuscript, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript.

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Correspondence to Adeney de Freitas Bueno.

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Grande, M.L.M., de Queiroz, A.P., Gonçalves, J. et al. Impact of Environmental Variables on Parasitism and Emergence of Trichogramma pretiosum, Telenomus remus and Telenomus podisi. Neotrop Entomol 50, 605–614 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-021-00874-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-021-00874-2

Keywords

  • Abiotic factor
  • egg parasitoids
  • biological control