Neotropical Entomology

, Volume 48, Issue 5, pp 788–808 | Cite as

Neotropical Leaf Litter Beetle Genus Motonerus (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae): New Species, Distribution Data, and Description of Third Instar Larva

  • M FikáčekEmail author
Systematics, Morphology and Physiology


Numerous new material of the genus Motonerus Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae) was examined over the past decade, resulting in the discovery of several undescribed species as well as new distributional records for most of the previously described species. Three species are here described as new: Motonerus explanatus sp. nov. (Panama), M. inca sp. nov. (Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia) and M. sofiae sp. nov. (Peru). New country records are provided for M. depressus Fikáček & Short (new for Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia), M. hanseni Fikáček & Short (new for Panama) and M. problematicus Fikáček & Short (new for Panama). An updated identification key and distributional maps are provided for all species, along with complete occurrence data in a DarwinCore formatted file. Potential distribution of the genus is modeled using the maximum entropy approach. Wing morphology is examined in detail, which revealed most species are macropterous, with M. andersoni Fikáček & Short being brachypterous, and M. apterus Fikáček & Short, M. oosternoides Fikáček & Short, and M. explanatus sp. nov. micropterous. The third instar of the putative larva of M. obscurus Hansen is briefly described based on larvae collected in association with adults.


Hydrophiloidea Sphaeridiinae Larval morphology Wing morphology Species distribution modelling 



I am indebted to A. E. Z. Short (KSEM), Al Newton, and Margaret Thayer (FMNH) for hosting me in Lawrence and Chicago in summer 2009 when most of the specimens for this paper were examined; additional loans from KSEM and CMN were able thanks to Andrew Short, Zack Fallin, Robert Anderson, and Francois Genier. Additional material from Mexico was collected thanks to Emmanuel Arriaga-Varela, Fredy Alvarado, and Jesús Cortés Aguilar who allowed me to participate on a field work nicely organized by them. Kristýna Tejmlová (Kladno, Czech Republic) was helping a lot with taking SEM micrographs of previously described Motonerus species. Bruno Clarkson (Brazil) criticized and hence helped to improve the taxonomic part of the manuscript. Jiří Šmíd (NMPC) provided additional advice concerning the use of ENMtools programm; Marianna Simoes (Senckenberg Research Institute, Germany) provided a critique of the ecological niche modeling part of an earlier version of this manuscript which allowed me to perform the analysis more accurately.

Funding Information

The study was supported by the Ministry of Culture of the Czech Republic (DKRVO 2019-2023/5.I.a, National Museum, 00023272).


  1. Archangelsky M (1997) Studies on biology, ecology and systematics of the immature stages of New Wold Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera: Staphyliniformia). Bull Ohio Biol Surv N S 12(1):1–207Google Scholar
  2. Archangelsky M (2016) Chaetotaxy and larval morphometry of Cercyon praetextatus (Say) and C. quisquilius (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae) and their phylogenetic implications. Arthropod Syst Phyl 74(2):177–193Google Scholar
  3. Archangelsky M (2018) Larval chaetotaxy and morphometry of Oosternum costatum (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae) including a discussion of larval characters with phylogenetic relevance. Acta Entomol Mus Nat Pragae 58(2):499–511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arriaga-Varela E, Seidel M, Deler-Hernández A, Senderov V, Fikáček M (2017) A review of the Cercyon Leach (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae, Sphaeridiinae) of the Greater Antilles. ZooKeys 681:39–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byttebier B, Torres PLM (2009) Description of the preimaginal stages of Enochrus (Hugoscottia) variegatus (Steinheil, 1869) and E. (Methydrus) vulgaris (Steinheil, 1869) (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae), with emphasis on larval morphometry and chaetotaxy. Zootaxa 2139:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Campbell LP, Luther C, Moo-Llanes D, Ramsey JM, Danis-Lozano R, Peterson AT (2015) Climate change influences on global distributions of dengue and chikungunya virus vectors. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 370:20140135CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Fick SE, Hijmans RJ (2017) Worldclim 2: New 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas. Int J Climatol 37:4302–4315. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fikacek M (2010) HYDROPHILIDAE: The genus Kanala Balfour-Browne (Coleoptera). In: Jäch M. A. & Balke M. (eds.): Water Beetles of New Caledonia, volume 1. Monographs of Coleoptera 3:365–394Google Scholar
  9. Fikáček M, Short AEZ (2006) A revision of the Neotropical genus Motonerus Hansen (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae). Zootaxa 1268:1–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fikáček M, Archangelsky M, Torres PLM (2008) Primary chaetotaxy of the larval capsule and head appendages of the Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera) based on larva of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758). Zootaxa 1874:16–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hadly EA, Spaeth PA, Li C (2009) Niche conservatism above the species level. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(supplement 2):19707–19714CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Hansen M (1989) New genera of Sphaeridiinae (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae). Entomol Scand 20:251–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiménez-Valverde A, Lobo JM (2007) Threshhold criteria for conversion of probability of species presence to either-or presence-absence. Acta Oecol 31:361–369CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lobo JM, Jiménez-Valverde A, Real R (2008) AUC: a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 17:145–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Makhan D (2009) Motonerus amrishi sp. nov. and Motonerus rishwani sp. nov. from Suriname (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Calodema 107:1–3Google Scholar
  16. Minoshima YN (2018) Larval morphology of Armostus ohyamatensis Hoshina and Satô (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Megasternini). Coleopt Bull 72(4):767–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Minoshima Y, Hayashi M (2011) Larval morphology of the Japanese species of the tribes Acidocerini, Hydrobiusini and Hydrophilini (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae). Acta Entomol Mus Nat Pragae 51(supplementum):1–118Google Scholar
  18. Osorio-Olvera L, Barve V, Barve N, Soberón J, Falconi M (2018) ntbox: From getting biodiversity data to evaluating species distribution models in a friendly GUI environment. R package version Accessed 27 October 2018
  19. Peterson AT, Papes M, Soberon J (2008) Rethinking receiver operating characteristic analysis applications in ecological niche modeling. Ecol Model 213:63–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE (2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecol Model 190:231–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Short AEZ, Fikáček M (2011) World catalogue of the Hydrophiloidea (Coleoptera): additions and corrections II (2006-2010). Acta Entomol Mus Nat Pragae 51(1):83–122Google Scholar
  22. Short AEZ, Fikáček M (2013) Molecular phylogeny, evolution and classification of the Hydrophilidae (Coleoptera). Syst Entomol 38:723–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Šmíd J, Moravec J, Gvoždík V, Štundl J, Frynta D, Lymberakis P, Kapli P, Wilms P, Schmitz A, Shobrak M, Yousefkhani SH, Rastegar-Pouyani E, Castilla AM, Els J, Mayer W (2017) Cutting the Gordian Knot? Phylogenetic and ecological diversification of the Mesalina brevirostris species complex (Squamata, Lacertidae). Zool Scr 46:649–664CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Soberón J, Nakamura M (2009) Niches and distributional areas: concepts, methods and assumptions. Proc Natl Acad Sci 106(supplementum 2):19644–19650CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Warren DL, Glor RE, Turelli M (2010) ENMTools: a toolbox for comparative studies of environmental niche models. Ecography 33:607–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wiens JJ, Donoghue MJ (2004) Historical biogeography, ecology and species richness. Trends Ecol Evol 19(12):639–644CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dept of EntomologyNational MuseumPraha 9Czech Republic
  2. 2.Dept of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceCharles UnivPraha 2Czech Republic

Personalised recommendations