Wing Shape Variation in the Taxonomic Recognition of Species of Diachlorus Osten-Sacken (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Colombia

Abstract

We evaluated the directional asymmetry between right and left wings and quantified the intraspecific and interspecific variation of the wing shape of 601 specimens of the genus Diachlorus to determine to what extent the geometrical variation discriminates six species distributed in six protected areas of Colombia. Geometric analyses were performed, integrating Procrustes methods, principal component analyses, cluster analyses, linear and quadratic discriminant analyses, and evaluations of shape changes. In Diachlorus, left and right wings did not present significant asymmetry but a geometrical analysis was allowed for species identification and, in some cases, the origin of the specimens using the variation of wing shape; the best-assigned species was Diachlorus leticia Wilkerson & Fairchild, while the worst was Diachlorus jobbinsi Fairchild, which also had the highest intraspecific variation, while Diachlorus fuscistigma Lutz had the lowest variation. Diachlorus fuscistigma and Diachlorus leucotibialis Wilkerson & Fairchild were the most similar species, while D. leucotibialis and Diachlorus nuneztovari Fairchild & Ortiz were the most disimilar. The specimens with the most different wing shape belonged to Chocó (especially those of D. jobbinsi), the geographically farthest area from the others in the study; however, no correlation was observed between geometric and geographical distances. Linear discriminants were better than nonlinear (quadratic) discriminant analyses in predicting species membership, but the opposite was true for predicting area membership. Based on our data, we hypothesized that other species of Diachlorus could also be discriminated using geometric morphometry of the wing shape.

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Acknowledgments

We thank Dr. Augusto Loureiro Henriques and Dr. Tiago Kutter Krolow for helping with specimen identification and Dr. Carlos Eduardo Sarmiento Monroy (ICN-UNAL) and “Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt (IavH)” for kindly providing the specimens used in this study. We thank Dr. Santiago Catalano and the two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments on the manuscript. This research was conducted as a partial requirement for the undergraduate degree of the first author. The second author is indebted to the División de Investigación y Extensión, Facultad de Salud, Universidad Industrial de Santander (project 5658), and the División de Investigación y Extensión, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Industrial de Santander (project 5132), for their financial support. The funders had no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

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Torres, A., Miranda-Esquivel, D.R. Wing Shape Variation in the Taxonomic Recognition of Species of Diachlorus Osten-Sacken (Diptera: Tabanidae) from Colombia. Neotrop Entomol 45, 180–191 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13744-015-0350-1

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Keywords

  • Discriminant analysis
  • morphometrics
  • Neotropical Tabanidae