Hollow nanoshell-sphere Fe@Fe/Pd reactors: a magnetically recoverable catalyst for the Csp–S cross-coupling reactions in water
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The hollow Pd–PVP–Fe nanosphere and Fe–PVP nanoparticle catalysts were synthesized by thermal method. Mixing of two metallic nanocatalysts was applied in the Csp–S cross-coupling reactions between diphenyl disulfide and phenylacetylene under mild conditions in water. Results show that bi-catalytic system has higher catalytic efficiencies than their monocatalytic systems due to synergy between two catalysts. Order of adding two metallic catalysts were adjusted into the coupling reaction medium. Therefore, various bi-catalytic systems were obtained and characterized by XRD, SEM, EBSD, EDX, UV–Vis spectra, and particle size analyzer. Under special order of adding, the obtained hollow nanoshell-sphere Fe@Fe/Pd reactor showed higher catalytic activity in the coupling reaction compared to other bi-catalytic systems. The Csp–S coupling products obtained of various diaryl disulfides and phenylacetylene at presence Fe@Fe/Pd (only 7.3 × 10−5 mmol Pd) catalyst with moderate to high yields in water solvent and mild reaction conditions. After the reaction, the catalyst/product(s) separation could be easily achieved with an external magnet and more than 95% of catalyst could be recovered. The recovered catalyst was characterized by XRD, SEM, EBSD, EDX, and UV–Vis spectra. The Fe@Fe/Pd was reused at least six repeating cycles without any loss of its high catalytic activity. Tuning morphology and chemical composition of bi-catalytic system are key mainstays of high activity of Fe@Fe/Pd in repeating cycles of cross-coupling reactions.
KeywordsPalladium/iron Heterometallic nanocatalyst Hollow nanoshell-sphere reactors Magnetically recoverable catalyst Csp–S cross-coupling reactions
The authors thank the Razi University Research Council for support of this work.
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