Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society

, Volume 14, Issue 11, pp 2437–2447 | Cite as

Apoptosis imaging by radionuclide probes

  • Chunhui Xia
  • Zhiqiang Lun
  • Xiuying Lin
  • Baiqi Wang
  • Yu WangEmail author
Original Paper


Apoptosis has attracted more and more research interests due to the critical role it played in the human health. Also, it is often confused with other types of cell death. Thus, methods that enable sensitive detection and noninvasive visualized imaging of apoptosis will be of enormous benefit in the development of new diagnostics, therapies and patient management. During the past decades, with the development of apoptosis understanding and molecular imaging modalities, a large collection of imaging agents based on well-defined molecular markers and/or physiological features have been developed and tested in preclinical and clinical studies. In this review, we mainly discuss radionuclide imaging probes, ranging from simple attachments of reporter moieties to proteins and peptides, to rationally designed probes that allow multimodal imaging. Furthermore, we briefly outline the current status of clinical translation and attempt to give an outlook on the further study.


Apoptosis Molecular imaging Radionuclide imaging probes Multimodal imaging probes 



The authors gratefully appreciate the support from the Natural Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (No C201459).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The author(s) confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Iranian Chemical Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chunhui Xia
    • 1
  • Zhiqiang Lun
    • 1
  • Xiuying Lin
    • 1
  • Baiqi Wang
    • 2
  • Yu Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Basic Medicine DepartmentQiqihar Medical UniversityQiqiharChina
  2. 2.Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public HealthTianjin Medical UniversityTianjingChina

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