Journal of the Iranian Chemical Society

, Volume 14, Issue 8, pp 1691–1698 | Cite as

Semi-automated salt-assisted liquid–liquid extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography to determine three aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples

  • Rouhollah HeydariEmail author
  • Mohammad Hosseini
  • Reza Rezaeepour
Original Paper


In this study, a new device for semi-automated salt-assisted liquid–liquid extraction was designed and coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to determine three aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous samples. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed device, three aromatic hydrocarbons including 2-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene were selected as model analytes. Sample solution, extraction solvent and salt solution using separate channels were transferred to a sample holder, respectively. These three components were mixed using a magnetic stirrer. After stirrer stopping, the aqueous and organic phases were separated and organic layer transferred to the injection loop of HPLC system. Optimization process was achieved using response surface methodology by Design-Expert software. A central composite design was used to optimize the main parameters including pH (A), stirrer time (B), organic solvent volume (C) and salt concentration (D). The limit of quantitation for 2-naphthol, naphthalene and anthracene was 15.0, 25.0 and 1.0 ng mL−1, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, obtained recoveries for three analytes were in the range of 76.0–96.2% with relative standard deviation less than 8.2%. The salt-assisted liquid–liquid extraction method using the proposed device has been successfully used for the analysis of real samples containing studied analytes in various matrices.


Semi-automated Salt-assisted extraction Liquid–liquid extraction High-performance liquid chromatography 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of Razi Herbal Medicines Research Center, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences.

Supplementary material

13738_2017_1110_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (516 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 515 kb)


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Copyright information

© Iranian Chemical Society 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Razi Herbal Medicines Research CenterLorestan University of Medical SciencesKhorramabadIran
  2. 2.Young Researchers and Elite Club, Arak BranchIslamic Azad UniversityArakIran

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