Properties of matrix-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites synthesized by in situ reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization


Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanocomposites were synthesized by the in situ reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA) in the presence of MWCNTs, at which the bulk polymer was grafted onto the surface of nanotubes through the “grafting through” strategy. For this purpose, MWCNTs were formerly functionalized with polymerizable MMA groups. MMA and PMMA-grafted MWCNTs were characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Dissolution of nanotubes was examined in chloroform solvent and studied by UV–vis spectroscopy. Thermogravimetric and degradation behavior of prepared nanocomposites was investigated by TGA. MWCNTs had a noticeable boosting effect on the thermal stability of nanocomposites. TGA thermograms showed a two-step weight loss pattern for the degradation of MWCNT-PMMA/PMMA nanocomposites which is contrast with neat PMMA. Introduction of MWCNTs also improved the dynamic mechanical behavior and electrical conductivity of nanocomposites. TEM micrograph of nanocomposite revealed that the applied methods for functionalization of nanotubes and in situ synthesis of nanocomposites were comparatively successful in dispersing the MWCNTs in PMMA matrix.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Scheme 1
Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    A. Bahari, H. Hekmatara, R. Sepahvand, M. Adeli, NANO 4, 217 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    R. Sepahvand, M. Adeli, B. Astinchap, R. Kabiri, J. Nanopart. Res. 10, 1309 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    M. Adeli, A. Bahari, H. Hekmatara, NANO 3, 37 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    M. Adeli, R. Sepahvand, A. Bahari, B. Astinchap, Int. J. Nanosci. 8, 533 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M. Adeli, N. Mirab, M. Shafiee Alavidjeh, Z. Sobhani, F. Atyabi, Polymer 50, 3528 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    M. Adeli, F. Hakimpoor, M. Ashiri, R. Kabiri, M. Bavadi, Soft Matter 7, 4062 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    M. Adeli, N. Mirab, F. Zabihi, Nanotechnology 20, 485603 (2009)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Y. Mansourpanah, S.S. Madaeni, A. Rahimpour, M. Adeli, M.Y. Hashemi, M.R. Moradian, Desalination 277, 171 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    J.N. Coleman, U. Khan, Y.K. Gun’ko, Adv. Mater. 18, 689 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    S. Berber, Y.-K. Kwon, D. Tománek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 4613 (2000)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    T.W. Ebbesen, H.J. Lezec, H. Hiura, J.W. Bennett, H.F. Ghaemi, T. Thio, Nature 382, 54 (1996)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    N.G. Sahoo, S. Rana, J.W. Cho, L. Li, S.H. Chan, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 837 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    M. Moniruzzaman, K.I. Winey, Macromolecules 39, 5194 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Z. Spitalsky, D. Tasis, K. Papagelis, C. Galiotis, Prog. Polym. Sci. 35, 357 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    P.M. Ajayan, O. Stephan, C. Colliex, D. Trauth, Science 265, 1212 (1994)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    D. Blond, V. Barron, M. Ruether, K.P. Ryan, V. Nicolosi, W.J. Blau, J.N. Coleman, Adv. Funct. Mater. 16, 1608 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    M.V. Jose, D. Dean, T. Tyner, G. Price, E.N. Nyairo, J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 103, 3844 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    F. Du, R.C. Scogna, W. Zhou, S. Brand, J.E. Fischer, K.I. Winey, Macromolecules 37, 9048 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    J. Cui, Y. Yan, J. Liu, Q. Wu, Polym. J. 40, 1067 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    J.-H. Ko, C.S. Yoon, J.-H. Chang, J. Polym. Sci. B Polym. Phys. 49, 244 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    V. Datsyuk, M. Kalyva, K. Papagelis, J. Parthenios, D. Tasis, A. Siokou, I. Kallitsis, C. Galiotis, Carbon 46, 833 (2008)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    C. Velasco-Santos, A.L. Martinez-Hernandez, F.T. Fisher, R. Ruoff, V.M. Castano, Chem. Mater. 15, 4470 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    G. Wang, Z. Qu, L. Liu, Q. Shi, J. Guo, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 472, 136 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    D. Baskaran, J.R. Dunlap, J.W. Mays, M.S. Bratcher, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 26, 481 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    S.J. Park, M.S. Cho, S.T. Lim, H.J. Choi, M.S. Jhon, Macromol. Rapid Commun. 24, 1070 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    V. Datsyuk, L. Billon, C. Guerret-Piécourt, S. Dagréou, N. Passade-Boupatt, S. Bourrigaud, O. Guerret, L. Couvreur, J. Nanomater. 2007, 74769 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    S. Qin, D. Qin, W.T. Ford, D.E. Resasco, J.E. Herrera, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 170 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    H. Kong, C. Gao, D. Yan, J.A. Chem, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126, 412 (2003)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    J. Cui, W. Wang, Y. You, C. Liu, P. Wang, Polymer 45, 8717 (2004)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    G. Xu, W.-T. Wu, Y. Wang, W. Pang, Q. Zhu, P. Wang, Nanotechnology 18, 145606 (2007)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    G. Xu, W.-T. Wu, Y. Wang, W. Pang, Q. Zhu, P. Wang, Y. You, Polymer 47, 5909 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    B. Yue, Y. Wang, C.-Y. Huang, R. Pfeffer, Z. Iqbal, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 7, 994 (2007)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    M. Salami-Kalajahi, V. Haddadi-Asl, S. Rahimi-Razin, F. Behboodi-Sadabad, H. Roghani-Mamaqani, M. Hemmati, Chem. Eng. J. 174, 368 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    Y. Yang, X. Xie, J. Wu, Y.-W. Mai, J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 44, 3869 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    F. Du, K. Wu, Y. Yang, L. Liu, T. Gan, X. Xie, Nanotechnology 19, 85716 (2008)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Z. Yang, H. Pu, J. Yin, Mater. Lett. 59, 2838 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    H. Roghani-Mamaqani, V. Haddadi-Asl, M. Najafi, M. Salami-Kalajahi, AIChE J. 57, 1873 (2011)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    H. Roghani-Mamaqani, V. Haddadi-Asl, M. Najafi, M. Salami-Kalajahi, Polym. Compos. 31, 1829 (2010)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    B.Y.K. Chong, J. Krstina, T.P.T. Le, G. Moad, A. Postma, E. Rizzardo, S.H. Thang, Macromolecules 36, 2256 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    M. Benaglia, E. Rizzardo, A. Alberti, M. Guerra, Macromolecules 38, 3129 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    M. Salami-Kalajahi, V. Haddadi-Asl, P. Ganjeh-Anzabi, M. Najafi, Iran. Polym. J. 20, 459 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    T. Kashiwagi, A. Inaba, J.E. Brown, K. Hatada, T. Kitayama, E. Masuda, Macromolecules 19, 2160 (1986)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    S. Su, C.A. Wilkie, J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 41, 1124 (2003)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    M.C. Costache, D. Wang, M.J. Heidecker, E. Manias, C.A. Wilkie, Polym. Adv. Technol. 17, 272 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    D.L. Patton, M. Mullings, T. Fulghum, R.C. Advincula, Macromolecules 38, 8597 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    V. Lima, X. Jiang, J. Brokken-Zijp, P.J. Schoenmakers, B. Klumperman, R. Van Der Linde, J. Polym. Sci. Pol. Chem. 43, 959 (2005)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    J. Xu, J. He, D. Fan, W. Tang, Y. Yang, Macromolecules 39, 3753 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    B. Chong, G. Moad, E. Rizzardo, M. Skidmore, S.H. Thang, Aust. J. Chem. 59, 755 (2006)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Y.-L. Huang, S.-M. Yuen, C.-C.M. Ma, C.-Y. Chuang, K.-C. Yu, C–.C. Teng, H.-W. Tien, Y.-C. Chiu, S.-Y. Wu, S.-H. Liao, F.-B. Weng, Compos. Sci. Technol. 69, 1991 (2009)

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Vahid Haddadi-Asl.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rahimi-Razin, S., Haddadi-Asl, V., Salami-Kalajahi, M. et al. Properties of matrix-grafted multi-walled carbon nanotube/poly(methyl methacrylate) nanocomposites synthesized by in situ reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. J IRAN CHEM SOC 9, 877–887 (2012).

Download citation


  • Poly(methyl methacrylate)
  • Multi-walled carbon nanotubes
  • Nanocomposites
  • Grafting through
  • Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization