Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 27, Issue 12, pp 1023–1032 | Cite as

Biocompatibility and adsorption properties of hydrogels obtained by graft polymerization of acrylic acid on cellulose from rice hulls

  • Gabriela Costa Milhomens
  • Camila Guimarães de Almeida
  • Rafaella de Sousa Salomão Zanette
  • Nelson Luis Gonçalves Dias de SouzaEmail author
  • Michele Munk
  • Humberto de Mello Brandão
  • Luiz Fernando Cappa de Oliveira
Original Research


Hydrogels constitute a group of cross-linked polymeric materials with the capability of swelling and retaining large amounts of water without dissolving. In this work, the hydrogels were obtained by grafting the acrylic acid on cellulose from rice hulls and cross-linking it with glycerol, ethylene glycol, and polyethylene glycol (Mw = 200 and 10,000 g mol−1). The samples were characterized using IR and Raman spectroscopy, the absence of the bands at 1636 and 1614 cm−1 (in IR) and at 1659 and 1637 cm−1 (in Raman), in the spectra of grafted cellulose and assigned to ν(C=C), indicated the polymerization process and the absence of the monomer residual. The cross-linking process was verified by the appearance of bands at 1090 cm−1 (IR) and 996 cm−1 (Raman), attributed to ν(C–O–C). Thermogravimetric analysis showed that the cross-linked sample with glycerol presented the lowest thermal stability. The molecular mass of CDClCC-g-AA was 55.56 ± 5.21 kDa with an R2 of 0.9741 and the CDClCC average particle size of 694 nm. The topography and the average roughness of the samples were obtained by atomic force microscopy and the samples that were cross-linked with the polyethylene glycol presented greater roughness. The degree of swelling was lower in the sample cross-linked with ethylene glycol, which was related to its higher degree of cross-linking. Finally, the biocompatibility of the samples was studied by analyzing the toxic effect of the samples on human embryonic kidney cells, where results showed that samples cross-linked with ethylene glycol were non-toxic.


Hydrogel Biocompatibility Spectroscopy Acrylic acid Cellulose Graft polymerization 



The authors wish to thank the Brazilian Agencies of National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq), Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improvement (CAPES), Foundation for Research Support of the State of Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) and the UFT (Federal University of Tocantins) Research Productivity Program for their financial support.

Supplementary material

13726_2018_672_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.1 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1144 KB)


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Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gabriela Costa Milhomens
    • 1
  • Camila Guimarães de Almeida
    • 2
  • Rafaella de Sousa Salomão Zanette
    • 3
  • Nelson Luis Gonçalves Dias de Souza
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michele Munk
    • 3
  • Humberto de Mello Brandão
    • 2
  • Luiz Fernando Cappa de Oliveira
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Exact Sciences and BiotechnologyFederal University of Tocantins, University Campus of GurupiGurupiBrazil
  2. 2.Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation, National Center for Research on Dairy CattleJuiz de ForaBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Biology, Biological Sciences InstituteFederal University of Juiz de ForaJuiz de ForaBrazil
  4. 4.NEEM, Nucleus of Spectroscopy and Molecular Structure, Department of ChemistryFederal University of Juiz de ForaJuiz de ForaBrazil

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