Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 27, Issue 11, pp 819–827 | Cite as

Maleated polyethylene as a compatibilizing agent in cannabis indica stem’s flour-reinforced composite materials

  • Oscar Buitrago-Suescún
  • Mario Monroy
Original Paper


Ethylene propylene diene terpolymer (EPDM) composites reinforced with wood flour of White Russian indica cannabis (ICF), a variety of marijuana obtained from government-licensed crops, were prepared. Wide particle size distribution range (136–1580 µm) of ICF was used. The wood flour was superficially treated with sodium hydroxide, and subsequently washed and dried. Composites with 30 and 60 parts of ICF by weight per hundred of rubber (phr) were prepared. Maleated polyethylene (MAPE) was used as a compatibilizer/coupling agent. The rubber compounds were mixed on a laboratory two-roll mill and cured composite sheets were obtained using compression molding technique. The effects of ICF and MAPE on the mechanical and physical properties of composites were analyzed. The addition of MAPE had positive effects on tensile strength, abrasion resistance, tear strength and compression set. The compatibilizing agent also had a slight effect on the hardness. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results confirmed that MAPE improved the interfacial adhesion between the ICF particle and EPDM matrix. ICF and MAPE slightly affected the crystallinity, characterized using X-ray diffraction microscopy, and curing behavior of the composites. Lightweight (ρ = 0.92 g/cm3) composites were obtained with load levels up to 60 phr of ICF.


Cannabis indica Composites Coupling agent EPDM Maleated polyethylene 



This work is the product of the INV-ING-2385 Project funded by the Vice-Rectory of Research at Universidad Militar Nueva Granada—in effect for 2017.


  1. 1.
    Wisittanawat U, Thanawan S, Amornsakchai T (2014) Mechanical properties of highly aligned short pineapple leaf fiber reinforced - nitrile rubber composite: effect of fiber content and bonding agent. Polym Test 35:20–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chow WS, Bakar AA, Mohd Ishak ZA, Kocsis JK, Ishiaku US (2005) Effect of maleic anhydride-grafted ethylene–propylene rubber on the mechanical, rheological and morphological properties of organoclay reinforced polyamide 6/polypropylene nanocomposites. Eur Polym J 41:687–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pang AL, Ismail H, Abu Bakar A (2018) Eco-friendly coupling agent-treated kenaf/linear low-density polyethylene/poly (vinyl alcohol) composites. Iran Polym J 27:87–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bhoopathia R, Ramesha M, Deepab C (2014) Fabrication and property evaluation of banana-hemp-glass fiber reinforced composites. Procedia Eng 97:2032–2041CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Santiagoo R, Ismail H, Hussin K (2011) Mechanical properties, water absorption, and swelling behaviour of rice husk powder filled polypropylene/ recycled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber PP/NBRR/RHP) biocomposites using silane as a coupling agent. BioResources 6:3714–3726Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Elanchezhian C, Ramnath B, Ramakrishnan G, Rajendrakumar M, Naveenkumar V, Saravanakumar MK (2018) Review on mechanical properties of natural fiber composites. Mater Today Proc 5:1785–1790CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Stelescu MD, Manaila E, Craciun G, Dumitrascu M (2014) New green polymeric composites based on hemp and natural rubber processed by electron beam irradiation. Sci World J. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Wang J, Wu W, Wang W, Zhang J (2011) Preparation and characterization of hemp hurd powder filled SBR and EPDM elastomers. J Polym Res 18:1023–1032CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    López M, Arroyo M, Biagiotti J, Kenny J (2003) Enhancement of mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion of PP/EPDM/flax fiber composites using maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. J Appl Polym Sci 90:2170–2178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lavoie JM, Beauchet R (2012) Biorefinery of Cannabis sativa using one- and two-step steam treatments for the production of high quality fibres. Ind Crops Prod 37:275:283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Salentijn EMJ, Zhang Q, Amaducci S, Yang M, Trindade LM (2015) New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding. Ind Crops Prod 68:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vukčević MM, Kalijadis AM, Vasiljević TM, Babić BM, Laušević ZV, Laušević MD (2015) Production of activated carbon derived from waste hemp (Cannabis sativa) fibers and its performance in pesticide adsorption. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 214:156–165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rovetto LJ, Aieta NV (2017) Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of cannabinoids from Cannabis sativa L. J Supercrit Fluids 129:16–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aiello G, Fasoli E, Boschin G, Lammi C, Zanoni C, Citterio A, Arnoldi A (2016) Proteomic characterization of hempseed (Cannabis sativa L.). J Proteom 147:187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sawler J, Stout JM, Gardner KM, Hudson D, Vidmar J, Butler L, Page J, Myles S (2015) The genetic structure of marijuana and hemp. PLoS One 10(8):e0133292CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Xie Y, Hill CAS, Xiao Z, Militz H, Mai C (2010) Silane coupling agents used for natural fiber/polymer composites: a review. Compos Part A 41:806–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tran TPT, Bénézet JC, Bergeret A (2014) Rice and Einkorn wheat husks reinforced poly(lactic acid) (PLA) biocomposites: effects of alkaline and silane surface treatments of husks. Ind Crops Prod 58:111–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Li X, Tabil LG, Panigrahi S (2007) Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J Polym Environ 15:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pires E, Merlini C, Al-Qureshi HA, Salmória GV, Barra GM (2012) Efeito do tratamento alcalino de fibras de juta no comportamentomecânico de compósitos de matriz epóxi. Polímeros. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sullins T, Pillay S, Komus A, Ning H (2017) Hemp fiber reinforced polypropylene composites: the effects of material treatments. Compos Part B 114:15–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kabir MM, Wang H, Lau KT, Cardona F (2012) Chemical treatments on plant-based natural fibre reinforced polymer composites: an overview. Compos Part B 43:2883:2892Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Onuegbu GC, Madufor IC, Ogbobe O (2012) Studies on effect of maleated polyethylene compatibilizer on some mechanical properties of kola nut filled low density polyethylene. Acad Res Int 3:406–412Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lu JZ, Negulescu II, Wu Q (2005) Maleated wood-fiber/high-density-polyethylene composites: coupling mechanisms and interfacial characterization. Compos Interface 12:125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Riyaz M, Desai R (2013) To study the blends of EPDM rubber with LDPE. Int J Res Eng Tech 2:555–558Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ehsani M, Zeynali M, Abtahi M, Harati A (2009) LDPE/EPDM blends as electrical insulators with unique surface, electrical and mechanical properties. Iran Polym J 18:37–47Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Abitha V, Rane A (2014) A review on EPDM/polyolefinic blends and composites. Res Rev Polym 5:102–114Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarkhel G, Choudhury A (2008) Dynamic mechanical and thermal properties of PE-EPDM based jute fiber composites. J Appl Polym Sci 108:3442–3453CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Araujo JR, Adamo CB, Rocha W, Costa M, Carozo V, Calil V, De Paoli M (2014) Elastomer composite based on epdm reinforced with polyaniline coated curauá fibers prepared by mechanical mixing. J Appl Polym Sci 131:40056CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Palacio O, Buitrago OY, Delgado AE (2016) Evaluación de polietileno maleatado en compuestos de etil vinil acetato y harina telinne monspessulana. Inf Technol 27:139–146Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Neher B, Gafur M, Al-Mansur M, Bhuiyan M, Qadir M, Ahmed F (2014) Investigation of the surface morphology and structural characterization of palm fiber reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (PF-ABS) composites. Mater Sci Appl 5:378–386Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Ramesh M (2016) Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) fibre based bio-materials: a review on processing and properties. Prog Mater Sci 78–79:1–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Li TQ, Wolcott MP (2005) Rheology of wood plastics melt. Part 1. capillary rheometry of HDPE filled with MAPLE. Polym Eng Sci 45:549–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sobhy MS, Tammam MT (2010) the influence of fiber length and concentration on the physical properties of wheat husk fibers rubber composites. Int J Polym Sci. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Craciun G, Manaila E, Stelescu M, Vasilescu A (2015) Characteristics of wood sawdust/natural rubber composites processed by electron beam irradiation. Mater Plast 52:234–238Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Anand GS, Jayamohan KG (2016) Synthesis of rice straw fiber reinforced natural rubber composite and effects surface treatment in its mechanical properties. Int J Adv Eng Res Sci 3:82–89Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Tabsan N, Wirasate S, Suchiva K (2010) Abrasion behavior of layered silicate reinforced natural rubber. Wear 269:394:404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Shen L, Xia L, Han T, Wu H, Guo S (2016) Improvement of hardness and compression set properties of EPDM seals with alternating multilayered structure for PEM fuel cells. Int J Hydrog Energy 41:23164–23172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Planes E, Chazeau L, Vigier G, Chenal J-M, Stuhldreier T (2010) Crystalline microstructure and mechanical properties of crosslinked EPDM aged under gamma irradiation. J Polym Sci B Polym Phys 48:97–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Chakraborty S, Sahoo N, Jana G, Das C (2004) Self-reinforcing elastomer composites based on ethylene–propylene–diene monomer rubber and liquid-crystalline polymer. J Appl Polym Sci 93:711–718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Furukawa T, Sato H, Kita Y, Matsukawa K, Yamaguchi H, Ochiai S, Siesler H, Ozaki Y (2006) Molecular structure, crystallinity and morphology of polyethylene/polypropylene blends studied by raman mapping, scanning electron microscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry. Polym J 38:1127–1136CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Industrial Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversidad Militar Nueva Granada, UMNGBogotáColombia

Personalised recommendations