Advertisement

Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 27, Issue 7, pp 445–459 | Cite as

Impact performance of hybrid laminated composites with statistical analysis

  • Marwa A. Abd El-baky
Original Research
  • 95 Downloads

Abstract

The main emphasis of this work is to fabricate a new composite system having high impact performance, light weight, cost-effective and reduced water absorption. Glass (G)–polypropylene (P) fibers reinforced epoxy composite laminates were fabricated using the hand lay-up technique. The impact response and water absorption capabilities of G–P fibers reinforced epoxy composites were investigated to know their suitability and adaptability for different industrial applications. Morphological studies of the fractured surfaces were performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Two-parameter Weibull distribution function was used to obtain the scatter in the results and to construct the reliability graphs. These reliability graphs are important tools for helping the designers to understand and choose the suitable material for the required application. The proposed G–P/epoxy hybrid composites showed an improvement in the impact performance and reduction in water absorption capability compared to the host composites. The hybrid composite with G-fiber at the periphery and P-fiber at the core has lower void content and lower water uptake. The plies stacking sequence has almost no effect on edge-wise impact strength values, whilst it has a noticeable effect on flat-wise impact strength values. When P-layers are at the impacted face, the composite exhibits higher impact strength. Both edge-wise and flat-wise impact strengths increase when P/G fiber ratio increases.

Keyword

Hybrid composites Polypropylene and glass fibers Impact resistance Voids Water absorption 

References

  1. 1.
    Wang J, Zhao J, Liu T, He Z, Li K, Yang W (2015) Crash analysis of composite energy-absorbing cylindrical impact attenuator. J Reinf Plast Compos 34:2006–2017CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sarasini F, Tirill J, Valente M, Valente T, Cioffi S, Iannace S, Sorrentino L (2013) Effect of basalt fiber hybridization on the impact behavior under low impact velocity of glass/basalt woven fabric/epoxy resin composites. Compos Part A 47:109–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    John MJ, Varughese KT, Thomas S (2008) Green composites from natural fibers and natural rubber: effect of fiber ratio on mechanical and swelling characteristics. J Nat Fiber 5:47–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kalaprasad G, Joseph K, Thomas S (1997) Influence of short glass fiber addition on the mechanical properties of sisal reinforced low density polyethylene composites. J Compos Mater 31:509–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    De Rosa IM, Santulli C, Sarasini F, Valente M (2009) Post-impact damage characterization of hybrid configurations of jute/glass polyester laminates using acoustic emission and IR thermography. Compos Sci Technol 66:1142–1150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Acıkbas G, Ozcan S, Acıkbas NC (2017) Production and characterization of a hybrid polymer matrix composite. Polym Compos  https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.24471 (In press)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Idicula M, Malhotra SK, Joseph K, Thomas S (2005) Effect of layering pattern on dynamic mechanical properties of randomly oriented short banana/sisal hybrid fiber–reinforced polyester composites. J Appl Polym Sci 97:2168–2174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pothan LA, George J, Oommen Z, Thomas S (1999) Polyester composites of short banana fibers and glass fibers. Tensile and impact properties. Polimery Nr 44:750–757Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pothan LA, George CN, John MJ (2010) Dynamic mechanical and dielectric behavior of banana–glass hybrid fiber reinforced polyester composites. J Reinf Plast Compos 29:1131–1145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pincheira G, Canales C, Medina C, Ferna´ndez E, Flores P (2018) Influence of aramid fibers on the mechanical behavior of a hybrid carbon–aramid-reinforced epoxy composite. Proc Instit Mech Eng Part L J Mater Design Appl 232:58–66Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Davoodi MM, Sapuan SM, Ahmad D, Aidy A, Khalina A, Jonoobi M (2011) Concept selection of car bumper beam with developed hybrid bio-composite material. Mater Des 32:4857–4865CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Boopalan M, Niranjanaa M, Umapathy MJ (2013) Study on the mechanical properties and thermal properties of jute and banana fiber reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. Compos Part B Eng 51:54–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dehkordi MT, Nosraty H, Shokrieh MM, Minak G, Ghelli D (2010) Low velocity impact properties of intra-ply hybrid composites based on basalt and nylon woven fabrics. Mater Des 31:3835–3844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wang X (2008) Low velocity impact properties of 3D woven basalt/aramid hybrid composites. Compos Sci Technol 68:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Panthapulakkal S, Sain M (2007) Injection-molded short hemp fiber/glass fiber reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites-mechanical, water absorption and thermal properties. J Appl Polym Sci 103:2432–2441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Venkateshwaran N, Elaya Perumal A, Alavudeen A, Thiruchitrambalam M (2011) Mechanical and water absorption behaviour of banana/sisal reinforced hybrid composites. Mater Des 32:4017–4021CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Visco AM, Campo N, Cianciafara P (2011) Comparison of seawater absorption properties of thermoset resins based composites. Compos Part A 42:123–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dhakal HN, Zhang ZY, Richardson MAW (2007) Effect of water absorption on the mechanical properties of hemp fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. Compos Sci Technol 67:1674–1683CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sreekala MS, George J, Kumaran MG, Thomas S (2001) Water-sorption kinetics in oil palm fibers. J Polym Sci Part B Polym Phys 39:1215–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Koradiya SB, Patel JP, Parsania PH (2010) The preparation and physicochemical study of glass, jute and hybrid glass–jute bisphenol-C-based epoxy resin composites. Polym-Plast Technol Eng 49:1445–1449CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Priya SP, Rai SK (2006) Mechanical performance of biofiber/glass reinforced epoxy hybrid composites. J Indust Text 35:217–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jarukumjorn K, Suppakarn N (2009) Effect of glass fiber hybridization on properties of sisal fiber-polypropylene composites. Compos Part B-Eng 40:623–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joseph S, Sreekala MS, Koshy P, Thomas S (2008) Mechanical properties and water sorption behavior of phenol-formaldehyde hybrid composites reinforced with banana fiber and glass fiber. J Appl Polym Sci 109:1439–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Burrow MF, Thomas D, Swain MV, Tyas MJ (2004) Analysis of tensile bond strengths using Weibull statistics. Biomaterials 25:5031–5035CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Selmy AI, Abd El-baky MA, Azab NA (2013) Experimental study on flexural fatigue behavior of glass fibers/epoxy hybrid composites with statistical analysis. J Reinf Plast Compos 32:1821–1834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gorjan L, Ambro M (2012) Bend strength of alumina ceramics: a comparison of Weibull statistics with other statistics based on very large experimental data set. J Eur Ceram Soc 32:1221–1227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Mottram JT (1994) Compression strength of pultruded sheet material. J Mater Civil Eng 6:185–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Selmy AI, Azab NA, Abd El-baky MA (2014) Statistical analysis of monotonic mechanical properties for unidirectional glass fiber (U)/random glass fiber (R)/epoxy hybrid and non-hybrid polymeric composites. J Compos Mater 48:455–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Wu D, Zhou J, Li Y (2006) Methods for estimating Weibull parameters for brittle materials. J Mater Sci 41:5630–5638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Attia MA, Abd El-baky MA, Alshorbagy AE (2017) Mechanical performance of intraply and inter-intraply hybrid composites based on e-glass and polypropylene unidirectional fibers. J Compos Mater 51:381–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Faidh-Allah MH, Ismail SA (2018) Optimization of cutting parameters on delamination of drilling glass-polyester composites. J Eng 24:34–45Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    ASTM D570-98 (Reapproved 2005), Standard test method for water absorption of plasticsGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sreekala MS, Kumaran MG, Joseph R, Thomas S (2001) Stress-relaxation behaviour in composites based on short oil-palm fibres and phenol formaldehyde resin. Compos Sci Technol 61:1175–1188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sreekumar PA, Thomas SP, Saiter JM, Joseph K, Unnikrishnan G, Thomas S (2009) Effect of fiber surface modification on the mechanical and water absorption characteristics of sisal/polyester composites fabricated by resin transfer molding. Compos A 40:1777–1784CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sari PS, Spatenka P, Jenikova Z, Grohens Y, Thomas S (2015) New type of thermoplastic biocomposites: nature of the interface on the ultimate properties and water absorption. RSC Adv 5:97536–97546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pothan LA, Thomas S, Neelakantan NR (1997) Short banana fiber reinforced polyester composites: mechanical, failure and aging characteristics. J Reinf Plast Compos 16:744–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Sreekala MS, Thomas S, Neelakantan NR (2011) Utilization of short oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (OPEFB) as reinforcement in phenol-formaldehyde resins: studies on mechanical properties. J Polym Eng 16:265–294Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    ISO (2000) 180:2000 (E) Plastics-determination of Izod impact strength, European Standards, Int Org for Standardization: Switzerland, 3rd ednGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Joseph S, Sreekala MS, Oommen Z, Koshy P, Thomas S (2002) A comparison of the mechanical properties of phenol formaldehyde composites reinforced with banana fibres and glass fibres. Compos Sci Technol 62:1857–1868CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Selmy AI, Abd El-baky MA, Hegazy DA (2018) Mechanical properties of inter-ply hybrid composites reinforced with glass and polyamide fibers. J Thermoplast Compos Mater.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0892705717751022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Attia MA, Abd El–Baky MA, Hassan MA, Sebaey TA, Mahdi E (2017) Crashworthiness characteristics of carbon–jute–glass reinforced epoxy composite circular tubes. Polym Compos.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pc.24597 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Acikbas NC, Acikbas G (2017) Epoxy matrix composites containing urea formaldehyde waste particulate filler. Waste Biomass Valor 8:669–678CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Abd El-baky MA (2017) Evaluation of mechanical properties of jute/glass/carbon fibers reinforced hybrid composites. Fiber Polym 18:2417–2432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    ASTM D 2734 (2009) Standard test methods for void content of reinforced plasticsGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Abdallah MH, Abdin EM, Selmy AI, Khashaba UA (1996) Reliability analysis of GFRP pultruded composite rods. Int J Qual Reliab Manage 13:88–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Khashaba UA (2003) Fatigue and reliability analysis of unidirectional GFRP composites under rotating bending loads. J Compos Mater 37:317–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Selmy AI, Abd El-baky MA, Ghazy MR, Kamel M (2017) Flexural fatigue performance of glass fiber/epoxy step-wise functionally and non-functionally graded composites of different structures. Int Polym Proc 32:298–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sakin R, Ay I (2008) Statistical analysis of bending fatigue life data using Weibull distribution in glass-fiber reinforced polyester composites. Mater Des 29:1170–1181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Selmy AI, Abd El-baky MA, Ghazy MR, Kamel M (2015) In-plane shear characteristics of unidirectional glass fiber/epoxy functionally graded (FG) and nonfunctionally graded (NFG) composite laminates with statistical analysis. J Compos Mater 49:3347–3358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Abd El-baky MA, Attia MA, Kamel M (2018) Flexural fatigue and failure probability analysis of polypropylene-glass hybrid fibres reinforced epoxy composite laminates. Plast Rubber Compos 47:47–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dirikoglu MH, Aktas A (2002) Statistical analysis of fracture strength of composite materials using Weibull distribution. Turk J Eng Environ Sci 26:45–48Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Zhou G, Davies GAO (1995) Characterization of thick glass woven-roving/polyester laminates: flexure and statistical considerations. Composites 26:587–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Davies P, Mazeas M, Casari P (2001) Sea water aging of glass reinforced composites. Shear behaviour and damage modelling. J Compos Mater 35:1343–1372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Alavudeen A, Rajini N, Karthikeyan S, Thiruchitrambalam M, Venkateshwaren N (2015) Mechanical properties of banana/kenaf fiber-reinforced hybrid polyester composites: effect of woven fabric and random orientation. Mater Des 66:246–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Muhammad YH, Ahmad S, Abu Bakar MA, Mamun AA, Heim HP (2015) Mechanical properties of hybrid glass/kenaf fibre-reinforced epoxy composite with matrix modification using liquid epoxidised natural rubber. J Reinf Plast Compos 34:896–906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ray D, Sarkar BK, Rana AK, Bose NR (2001) The mechanical properties of vinylester resin matrix composites reinforced with alkali-treated jute fibers. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 32:119–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rahmanian S, Thean KS, Suraya AR, Shazed MA, Salleh MAM, Yusoff HM (2013) Carbon and glass hierarchical fibers: influence of carbon nanotubes on tensile, flexural and impact properties of short fiber reinforced composites. Mater Des 43:10–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fragassa C, Pavlovic A, Santulli C (2018) Mechanical and impact characterization of flax and basalt fibre vinylester composites and their hybrids. Compos Part B: Eng 137:247–259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Park R, Jang J (2001) Impact behavior of aramid fiber/glass fiber hybrid composites: the effect of stacking sequence. Polym Compos 22:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pegoretti A, Fabbri E, Migliaresi C, Pilati F (2004) Intraply and interply hybrid composites based on E-glass and poly(vinyl alcohol) woven fabrics: tensile and impact properties. Polym Int 53:1290–1297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Kim JK, Sham ML (2000) Impact and delamination failure of woven-fabric composites. Compos Sci Technol 60:745–761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Marom G, Fischer S, Tuler FR, Wagner HD (1978) Hybrid effects in composites: conditions for positive or negative effects versus rule of mixtures behavior. J Mater Sci 13:1419–1426CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mechanical Design and Production Engineering DepartmentZagazig UniversityZagazigEgypt

Personalised recommendations