Advertisement

Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 27, Issue 4, pp 225–237 | Cite as

Benzimidazole-based dendritic nanofiltration membranes

  • D. Nithya
  • J. S. Beril Melbiah
  • D. Mohan
Original Research

Abstract

A dendritic-benzimidazole (D-BI) has been prepared using polyphosphoric acid (PPA) as a condensing medium with diaminobenzidine (DAB), 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxylic acid, and isophthalic acid as monomers. The structure of D-BI was ascertained by elemental analysis, FTIR, 1H NMR, and solid-state 13C-NMR. The D-BI was incorporated into polysulphone (PSf) by blending with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP K-30) as a macromolecular additive. The membranes were cast by phase inversion technique. The physical properties such as surface morphology and the chemical properties such as contact angle and the performance attributes, such as NOM rejection, salt rejection, and pure water flux were studied. It is imperative that the infusibility of rigid polymeric backbone is overcome by the introduction of polar moieties with no compromise on thermal stability. The membranes displayed substantial increase in thermal stability with D-BI content. The marginal increase in flux has been attributed to the branching and steric effect of D-BI. This is because the introduction of polar group efficiently affords to stabilize the adjacent aromatic rings. The salt rejection shows the order of MgSO4 ≈ Na2SO4 > MgCl2 > NaCl, which follows that the divalent ions are rejected more than monovalent ions. The antifouling behaviour was also significant as the irreversible fouling (RIr 9%), which was found to be minimal for D-BI-incorporated membrane. The blended membranes exhibited good hydrophilicity, antifouling, and fairly good rejection of salts.

Keywords

Dendritic-benzimidazole Polysulphone Nanofiltration salt rejection Humic acid rejection Irreversible fouling 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been funded by BRNS Sanction No. 2013/37C/29/BRNS.

References

  1. 1.
    Kim K, Kim H, Lim JH, Lee SJ (2016) Development of desalination membrane bioinspired by mangrove roots for spontaneous filtration of sodium ions. ACS Nano 10:11428–11433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang R, Liu Y, He M, Su Y, Zhao X, Elimelech M, Jiang Z (2016) Antifouling membranes for sustainable water purification: strategies and mechanism. Chem Soc Rev 45:5888–5924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lu J, Wan Y (2013) Effects of pH and salt on nanofiltration. J Membr Sci 438:18–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Tomalia DA (2005) Birth of a new macromolecular architecture: dendrimers as quantized building blocks for nanoscale synthetic polymer chemistry. Prog Polym Sci 30:294–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Jubera AM, Herbison JH, Komaki Y, Plewa MJ, Moore JS, Cahill DG, Marinas BJ (2013) Development and performance characterization of a polyamide nanofiltration membrane modified with covalently bonded aramide dendrimers. Environ Sci Technol 47:8642–8649Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Model FS, Davis HJ, Sessa PA (1973) Preparation and evaluation of optimized hemodialysis membranes. Annual Report, NIH-NIAMDD-73-2200, US Department of Health, Education and WelfareGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Brinegar WC (1974) Production of semipermeable PBI membranes. US Patent 3,841,492Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chung TS, Xu ZL (1998) Asymmetric hollow fiber membranes prepared from miscible polybenzimidazole and polyetherimide blends. J Membr Sci 147:35–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kumbharkar SC, Karadkar PB, Kharul UK (2006) Enhancement of gas permeation properties of polybenzimidazoles by systematic structure architecture. J Membr Sci 286:161–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Xiu SC, Fu Z, Chung TS (2014) Fouling behavior of polybenzimidazole (PBI)–polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS)/polyacrylonitrile (PAN) hollow fiber membranes for engineering osmosis processes. Desalination 335:17–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wang KY, Chung TS, Rajagopalan R (2007) Novel polybenzimidazole (PBI) nanofiltration membranes for the separation of sulfate and chromate from high alkalinity brine to facilitate the chlor-alkali process. Ind Eng Chem Res 46:1572–1577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Xing DY, Chan SY, Chung TS (2012) Molecular interactions between polybenzimidazole and [EMIM] OAC, and derived ultrafiltration membranes for protein separation. Green Chem 14:1405–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Iwakura Y, Suginami KU, Uno K, Kitatama GUN, Imai Y (1967) Process for the preparation of polybenzimidazole. US Patent No. 3,313,783Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu H, Chen K, Guo X, Fang J, Yin J (2007) Synthesis and properties of hyperbranched polybenzimidazoles via A2 + B3 approach. J Polym Sci A Polym Chem 45:1150–1158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Li Q, Jensen JO, Savinell RF, Bjerrum NJ (2009) High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazoles for fuel cells. Prog Polym Sci 34:449–477CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kronguaz ES, Rusanov AL, Renard TL (1970) Polyphosphoric acid in cyclisation and polycyclisation reactions. Russ Chem Rev 39:747–765CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wang B, Tang Y, Wen Z, Wang H (2009) Dissolution and regeneration of polybenzimidazoles using ionic liquids. Eur Polym J 45:2962–2965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Shogbon CB, Brousseau JL, Zhang H, Benicewicz BC, Akpalu YA (2006) Determination of the molecular parameters and studies of the chain conformation of polybenzimidazoles in DMAc/LiCl. Macromolecules 39:9409–9418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sannigrahi A, Ghosh S, Maity S, Jana T (2011) Polybenzimidazole gel membrane for the use in fuel cell. Polymer 52:4319–4330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Mohammed G, Zaidi H, Thakur A, Agarwal T, Alam S (2014) Synthesis of polypyrrole/polythiophene copolymers in supercritical carbon dioxide. Iran Polym J 23:365–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Conti F, Willbold S, Mammi S, Korte C, Lehnert W, Stolten D (2013) Carbon NMR investigations of the polybenzimidazole-dimethyl acetamide interaction in membrane for fuel cells. New J Chem 37:152–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Muhammad R, Rekha P, Mohanty P (2016) Facile synthesis of a thermally stable imine and benzimidazole functionalised nanoporous polymer (IBFNP) for CO2 capture application. Greenh Gas Sci Technol 6:150–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Singha S, Jana T (2014) Structure and properties of polybenzimidazole/silica nanocomposite electrolyte membranes: influence of organic/inorganic interface. Appl Mater Interface 6:21286–21296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tang CY, Kwon YN, Leckie JO (2007) Probing the nano- and micro-scales of reverse osmosis membranes: a comprehensive characterization of physiochemical properties of uncoated and coated membranes by XPS, TEM, ATR-FTIR, and streaming potential measurements. J Membr Sci 287:146–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Eren E, SarihanA Eren B, Gumus H, Kocak F (2015) Preparation, characterization and performance enhancement of polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane using PBI as hydrophilic modifier. J Membr Sci 475:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang H, WenH HuB, FeiG ShenY, SunL YangD (2017) Facile approach to fabricate waterborne polyaniline nanocomposites with environmental benignity and high physical properties. Sci Rep 7:43694CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shockravi A, Abouzarilotfe E, Javadi A, Taheri S (2009) Synthesis and properties of novel fluorinated polyamides based on non-planar sulphoxide containing aromatic bis (ether amine). Polymer 41:174–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    AnandhanS PonprapakarnK, SenthilT GeorgeG (2012) Parametric study of manufacturing ultrafine polybenzimidazole fibers by electro spinning. Int J Plast Technol 16:101–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Senthilkumar S, Rajesh S, Mohan D, Soundararajan P (2013) Preparation, characterization, and performance evaluation of poly(ether-imide) incorporated cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membrane for hemodialysis. Sep Sci Technol 48:66–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Zhang Y, Wan Y, Shi Y, Pan G, Yan H, Xu J, Guo M, Qin L, Liu Y (2016) Facile modification of thin film composite nanofiltration membrane with silver nanoparticles for anti-biofouling. J Polym Res 23:105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kumbarkar SC, Islam MN, Potrekar RA, Kharul UK (2009) Variation in acid moiety of polybenzimidazoles: investigation of physio-chemical properties towards their applicability as proton exchange and gas separation membrane materials. Polymer 50:1403–1413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Asatekin A, Gleason KK (2011) Polymeric nanopore membranes for hydrophobicity-based separations by conformal initiated chemical vapor deposition. Nano Lett 11:677–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Geise GM, Paul DR, Freeman BD (2014) Fundamental water and salt transport properties of polymeric materials. Prog Polym Sci 39:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Aiba M, Tokuyama T, Matsumoto H, Tomioka H, Higashihara T, Ueda M (2015) Effect of primary structure on permselectivity of ultrathin semipermeable polybenzimidazole membrane. J Appl Polym Sci 132:41531Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Thanigaivelan A, Noel JK, Mohan D (2015) Development of new hybrid ultrafiltration membranes by entanglement of macromolecular PPSU-SO3H chains: preparation, morphologies, mechanical strength and fouling resistant properties. J Appl Polym Sci 132:41986Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhu WP, Sun SP, Gao J, Fu FJ, Chung TS (2014) Dual-layer polybenzimidazole/polyethersulfone (PBI/PES) nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes for heavy metals removal from wastewater. J Membr Sci 456:117–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Chang H, Qu F, Liu B, Yu H, Li K, Shao S, Li G, Liang H (2015) Hydraulic irreversibility of ultrafiltration membrane fouling by humic acid: effects of membrane properties and backwash water composition. J Membr Sci 493:723–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hamid NAA, Ismail AF, Matsuura T, Zularisam AW, Lau WJ, Yuliwati E, Abdullah MS (2011) Morphological and separation performance study of polysulfone/titanium dioxide ultrafiltration membranes for humic acid removal. Desalination 273:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Membrane Lab, Department of Chemical EngineeringAnna UniversityChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations