Iranian Polymer Journal

, Volume 26, Issue 2, pp 137–147 | Cite as

Synthesis of cellulose triacetate-I from microfibrillated date seeds cellulose (Phoenix dactylifera L.)

  • Abdelkader NabiliEmail author
  • Arbi Fattoum
  • Marie-Christine Brochier-Salon
  • Julien Bras
  • Elimame Elaloui
Original Paper


Cellulose triacetate (CTA) has successfully been synthesized from microfibrillated date seeds cellulose. The cellulosic material under study constituted 84.9% amorphous phase with a degree of polymerization of 950. Acetylation was conducted at 50 °C under optimized heterogeneous conditions by acetic anhydride as acetyl donor, acetic acid as solvent and sulfuric acid as catalyst. In this process, cellulose was acetylated without dissolving the material throughout. The acetylated cellulose chains on the surface were dissolved gradually in acetic acid, which created new accessible zones. The yield of cellulose triacetate was studied varying acetic acid, acetic anhydride and catalyst concentrations, as well as reaction times. The ratio between the intensity of the acetyl C=O stretching band at around 1740 cm−1 and the intensity of C–O stretching vibration of the cellulose backbone at 1020–1040 cm−1 was used to optimize the reaction time. The optimal reaction conditions of 8% concentration of sulfuric acid, acetic anhydride/cellulose weight ratio of 3:1, acetic acid/cellulose weight ratio of 7:1, reaction time of 3 h and reaction temperature of 50 °C have given highest yield of cellulose triacetate, of about 79%. The obtained date seeds-based cellulose triacetate was characterized thoroughly by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The synthesized product was identified as cellulose triacetate-I (CTA-I) characterized by a melting temperature of 217 °C and a decomposition temperature of 372 °C. These results demonstrated that date seeds can be used as potential source of microfibrillated cellulose which can be easily functionalized.


Date seeds cellulose Cellulose triacetate Optimization Crystalline allomorph-I Degree of acetyl substitution 



The authors wish to thank International school of paper, print media and biomaterials (Grenoble INP-PAGORA) for their generous financial and materials support rendered to allow this research work to be conducted. We greatly acknowledge Professor M Naceur Belgacem for many useful discussions and suggestions.


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Copyright information

© Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abdelkader Nabili
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arbi Fattoum
    • 1
  • Marie-Christine Brochier-Salon
    • 2
  • Julien Bras
    • 2
  • Elimame Elaloui
    • 1
  1. 1.Unité de Recherche Matériaux Environnement et Energie (ME2)Faculté des Sciences de Gafsa, Sidi Ahmed Zarrouk, Université de GafsaGafsaTunisie
  2. 2.Laboratoire Génie des Procédés Papetiers (LGP2) de Grenoble INP-PagoraUMR CNRS 5518Saint-Martin-d’HèresFrance

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