The effect of carbon black and HALS hybrid systems on the UV stability of high-density polyethylene (HDPE)


In the present study, attempts were made to study the effect of a hybrid UV stabilizing system on high-density polyethylene (HDPE). For this purpose, high molecular weight PE was used to prepare samples containing different amounts of hindered amine light stabilizer (HALS), carbon black (CB) and HALS/CB systems as UV stabilizers. All samples were exposed to UV irradiation simulating 4 and 8 years of exposure to solar irradiation in central part of Iran (Yazd). FTIR results were used to estimate the carbonyl index (CI) of the samples. It showed that CI increased as UV exposure time increased. However, it was found out that in the samples having both stabilizers (HALS/CB), CI value was much less compared to other samples indicating that the presence of hybrid system would show a synergism effect on UV stabilization of HDPE. The gel content of all samples was measured and it confirmed the same results. The PECH sample (containing HALS and CB) showed the least gel content after equivalent time of 4 and 8 years of exposure (2 and 3.5 wt%, respectively) which was in accordance with CI result. Furthermore, the effect of different UV stabilizing systems on the mechanical properties of HDPE was studied. For this purpose, elastic modulus, elongation-at-break and yield stress of the samples were measured. It was found out that HALS/CB hybrid system preserved the mechanical properties of HDPE much better than the other systems, which was attributed to the synergistic effect of the simultaneous use of HALS and CB.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6


  1. 1.

    Feldman D (2002) Polymer weathering: photo-oxidation. J Polym Enviorn 10:163–173

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cicchetti O (1970) Mechanisms of photo degradation and stabilization of polyolefins. Adv Polym Sci 7:70–112

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Carlsson DJ, Wiles DM (1976) The photo-oxidative degradation of polypropylene part 1: photooxidation and photoinitiation process. J Macromol Sci Part C Polym Rev 14:65–106

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Singh B, Sharma N (2008) Mechanistic implication of plastic degradation. Polym Degrad Stab 93:561–584

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Andrady AL, Hamid H, Torikai A (2011) Effects of solar UV and climate change on materials. Photochem Photobial Sci 10:292–300

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Rabello MS, White JR (1997) The role of physical structure and morphology in the photodegradation behavior of polypropylene. Polym degrad and stab 56:55–73

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Yang R, Li Y, Yu J (2005) Photo-stabilization of linear low density polyethylene by inorganic nano-particles. Polym Degrad Stab 88:168–174

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Maria R, Rode K, Brull R, Dorbath F, Baudrit B, Bastian M, Brendle E (2011) Monitoring the influence of different weathering conditions on polyethylene pipes by IR-microscopy. Polym Degrad Stab 96:1901–1910

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Eltayeb E, Mahdavian AR, Barikani M (2011) Effect of cobalt naphthenate and 2-benzoylbenzoic acid on UV-degradation of LDPE, Iranian. J Chem Eng 8:31–42

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Eltayeb E, Barikani M, Mahdavian AR, Honarkar H (2009) The effect of cobalt naphthenate and 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone on photo-oxidative degradation of LDPE. Iran Polym J 18(9):753–760

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Hawkins WL, Worthington MA, Winslow FH (1960) Rubber Age 88:279–283

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Hawkins WL, Worthington MA (1963) Synergistic antioxidant combinations. Carbon black substitutes. J Polym Sci Part A 1:3489–3497

    Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Liu M, Horrocks AR (2002) Effect of carbon black on UV stability of LLDPE films under artificial weathering conditions. Polym Degrad Stab 75:485–499

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Gugumus F (1993) Re-evaluation of the stabilization mechanism of various light stabilizer classes. Polym Degrad Stab 39:117–135

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Gugumus F (2000) Aspects of the impact of stabilizer mass on performance in polymers: 3. performance of HALS in Polyethylene. Polym Degrad Stab 96:93–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Gugumus F, Klemchuk P, Pospisil J (1989) Inhibition of oxidation processes in organic materials, vol 2. CRC, Boca Raton 2

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Gugumus F (2002) Possibilities and limits of synergism with light stabilizers in polyolefins 1. HALS in polyolefins. Polym Degrad Stab 75:295–308

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Kurumada T, Ohsawa H, Yamazaki T (1987) Synergism of hindered amine light stabilizers and UV-absorbers. Polym Degrad Stab 19:263–272

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Butola BS, Joshi M (2013) Photostability of HDPE filaments stabilized with UV absorbers (UVA) and light stabilizers (HALS). J Eng Fibers Fabs 8:61–68

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Sabziparvar AA (2008) A simple formula for estimating global solar radiation in central arid deserts of Iran. Renew Energy 33:1002–1010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Tolinski M (2009) Additives for polyolefins: getting the most out of polypropylene, polyethylene and TPO. William Andrew, Oxford, UK

  22. 22.

    Boehm HP (2002) Surface oxides on carbon and their analysis: a critical assessment. Carbon 40:145–149

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mahdi Salami Hosseini.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Javadi, Y., Hosseini, M.S. & Aghjeh, M.K.R. The effect of carbon black and HALS hybrid systems on the UV stability of high-density polyethylene (HDPE). Iran Polym J 23, 793–799 (2014).

Download citation


  • UV degradation
  • HALS
  • Carbon black
  • HDPE
  • Photostabilization