Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube/polycitric acid hybrid nanomaterials

Abstract

Polycitric acid was conjugated onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), and hybrid nanomaterials containing CNT axis and polycitric acid branches that were highly soluble in aqueous solutions were synthesized. In this work, pristine MWCNTs were opened and functionalized through treatment with acid, then polycitric acid was covalently grafted onto their surface by the “grafting from” approach based on polycondensation of citric acid in the melting state. The chemical structure, morphology, thermal properties and size of MWCNT-g-PCA hybrid materials were investigated by IR, 13C NMR, 1H NMR, TEM, TGA, DSC and DLS. To investigate the biocompatibility of the synthesized hybrid nanomaterials and their potential applications for future nanomedicine, short-term in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility tests were conducted on HT1080 cell line (human fibrosarcoma). Based on the results of the in vitro cytotoxicity tests and hemolysis assay, no adverse effect was observed on the HT1080 cell and also on red blood cells up to 1 mg/mL concentration. It appeared that the changes in the conformation, shape and dispersity of CNTs, induced by the conjugated hyperbranched polymers, were the main factors that affected the toxicity of CNTs and also their interaction with the cell membranes. Interestingly, the results of the cytotoxicity tests were in agreement with our previous work, carbon nanotubes-graft-polyglycerol, proving that hyperbranched polymers conjugated onto the surface of CNTs dominated their physiochemical properties and therefore their interactions with the cell membranes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Scheme 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Adeli M, Soleyman R, Beiranvand Z, Madani F (2013) Carbon nanotubes in cancer therapy: a more precise look at the role of carbon nanotubes–polymer interactions. Chem Soc Rev 42:5231–5256

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Yarotski DA, Kilina SV, Talin AA, Tretiak S, Prezhdo OV, Balatsky AV, Taylor AJ (2009) Scanning tunneling microscopy of DNA-wrapped carbon nanotubes. Nano Lett 9:12–17

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Lacerda L, Raffa S, Prato M, Bianco A, Kostarelos K (2007) Cell-penetrating CNTs for delivery of therapeutics. Nano Today 2:38–43

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Lam CW, James JT, McCluskey R, Arepalli S, Hunter RL (2006) A review of carbon nanotube toxicity and assessment of potential occupational and environmental health risks. Crit Rev Toxicol 36:189–217

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Ding L, Stilwell J, Zhang T, Elboudwarej O, Jiang H, Selegue JP, Cooke PA, Gray JW, Chen FF (2005) Molecular characterization of the cytotoxic mechanism of multiwall carbon nanotubes and nano-onions on human skin fibroblast. Nano Lett 5:2448–2464

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Adeli M, Hakimpoor F, Ashiri M, Kabiri R, Bavadi M (2011) Anticancer drug delivery systems based on noncovalent interactions between carbon nanotubes and linear-dendritic copolymers. Soft Matter 7:4062–4070

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Adeli M, Mirab N, Alavidjeh MS, Sobhani Z, Atyabi F (2009) Carbon nanotubes-graft-polyglycerol: biocompatible hybrid materials for nanomedicine. Polymer 50:3528–3536

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Mehdipoor E, Adeli M, Bavadi M, Sasanpour P, Rashidian B (2011) A possible anticancer drug delivery system based on carbon nanotube–dendrimer hybrid nanomaterials. J Mater Chem 21:15456–15463

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Qiao R, Ke PC (2006) Lipid-carbon nanotube self-assembly in aqueous solution. J Am Chem Soc 128:13656–13657

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Baskaran D, Mays JW, Bratcher MS (2004) Polymer-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes through surface-initiated polymerization. Angew Chem Int Ed 43:2138–2142

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Namazi H, Adeli M (2003) Novel linear–globular thermoreversible hydrogel ABA type copolymers from dendritic citric acid as the A blocks and poly(ethyleneglycol) as the B block. Eur Polym J 39:1491–1500

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Namazi H, Adeli M (2005) Dendrimers of citric acid and poly(ethylene glycol) as the new drug-delivery agents. Biomaterials 26:1175–1183

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Naeini AT, Adeli M, Vossoughi M (2010) Poly(citric acid)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymers—new biocompatible hybrid materials for nanomedicine. Nanomed Nanotechnol Biol Med 6:556–562

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Qian X, Peng X-H, Ansari DO, Yin-Goen Q, Chen GZ, Shin DM, Yang L, Young AN, Wang MD, Nie S (2008) In vivo tumor targeting and spectroscopic detection with surface-enhanced Raman nanoparticle tags. Nat Biotechnol 26:83–90

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Li X, Liu H, Niu X, Yu B, Fan Y, Feng Q, Cui F-Z, Watari F (2012) The use of carbon nanotubes to induce osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived MSCs in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo. Biomaterials 33:4818–4827

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Cui D, Tian F, Ozkan CS, Wang M, Gao H (2005) Effect of single wall carbon nanotubes on human HEK293 cells. J Toxicol Lett 155:73–85

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Kostarelos K (2008) The long and short of carbon nanotube toxicity. Nat Biotechnol 26:774–776

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Poland CA, Duffin R, Kinloch I, Maynard A, Wallace WA, Seaton A, Stone V, Brown S, Macnee W, Donaldson K (2008) Carbon nanotubes introduced into the abdominal cavity of mice show asbestos-like pathogenicity in a pilot study. Nat Nanotechnol 3:423–428

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Schipper ML, Nakayama-Ratchford N, Davis CR, Kam NWS, Chu P, Liu Z, Sun X, Dai H, Gambhir SS (2008) A pilot toxicology study of single-walled carbon nanotubes in a small sample of mice. Nat Nanotechnol 3:216–221

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Adeli M, Beyranvand S, Kabiri R (2013) Preparation of hybrid nanomaterials by supramolecular interactions between dendritic polymers and carbon nanotubes. Polym Chem 4:669–674

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Adeli M, Beyranvand S, Hamid M (2012) Noncovalent interactions between linear-dendritic copolymers and carbon nanotubes; a promising way to avoid the asbestos-like pathology of long carbon nanotubes. J Mater Chem 22:6947–6952

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the Iran National Science Foundation, INSF, for the financial support this work.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mohsen Adeli.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Adeli, M., Alavidjeh, M.S. & Mohammadifar, E. Cytotoxicity of carbon nanotube/polycitric acid hybrid nanomaterials. Iran Polym J 23, 195–201 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13726-013-0215-6

Download citation

Keywords

  • Polycitric acid
  • Hybrid nanomaterials
  • Carbon nanotubes
  • Biocompatibility
  • Hyperbranched polymers