Mindfulness Approaches and Weight Loss, Weight Maintenance, and Weight Regain
- 958 Downloads
Purpose of Review
There is an urgent need for effective weight management techniques, as more than one third of US adults are overweight or obese. Recommendations for weight loss include a combination of reducing caloric intake, increasing physical activity, and behavior modification. Behavior modification includes mindful eating or eating with awareness. The purpose of this review was to summarize the literature and examine the impact of mindful eating on weight management.
The practice of mindful eating has been applied to the reduction of food cravings, portion control, body mass index, and body weight. Past reviews evaluating the relationship between mindfulness and weight management did not focus on change in mindful eating as the primary outcome or mindful eating as a measured variable.
This review demonstrates strong support for inclusion of mindful eating as a component of weight management programs and may provide substantial benefit to the treatment of overweight and obesity.
KeywordsMindful eating Weight Weight loss Weight maintenance Weight regain Obesity Overweight Mindfulness Awareness Meditation Acceptance-based behavior therapy (ABBT) Mindfulness-based stress reduction Literature review
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Carolyn Dunn, Megan Haubenreiser, Madison Johnson, Kelly Nordby, Surabhi Aggarwal, Sarah Myer, and Cathy Thomas declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance
- 1.Ogden CD, Carroll MD, Fryar CD, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity among adults and youth: United States, 2011-2014. In: NCHS Data Brief. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention2015. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db219.pdf. Accessed 4 September 2017.Google Scholar
- 5.Halfon N, Larson K, Slusser W. Associations between obesity and comorbid mental health, development, and physical health conditions in a nationally representative sample of US children aged 10 to 17. Acad Pediatr. 2013;13(1):6–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2012.10.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 6.Star A, Hay P, Quirk F, Mond J. Perceived discrimination and favourable regard toward underweight, normal weight and obese eating disorder sufferers: implications for obesity and eating disorder population health campaigns. BMC Obes. 2015;2(1):4. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40608-014-0032-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 10.Wing RR, Lang W, Wadden TA, Safford M, Knowler WC, Bertoni AG, et al. Benefits of modest weight loss in improving cardiovascular risk factors in overweight and obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2011;34(7):1481–6. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc10-2415.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 16.Baradel LA, Gillespie C, Kicklighter JR, Doucette MM, Penumetcha M, Blanck HM. Temporal changes in trying to lose weight and recommended weight-loss strategies among overweight and obese Americans, 1996-2003. Prev Med. 2009;49(2-3):158–64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2009.06.3030.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 18.Framson C, Kristal AR, Schenk JM, Littman AJ, Zeliadt S, Benitez D. Development and validation of the Mindful Eating Questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc 2009:109:1439–1444. Doi: 10.1016.j.jada.2009.05.006.Google Scholar
- 19.Daubenmier J, Kristeller J, Hecht F, Maniger N, Kuwata M, Jhaveri K, et al. Mindfulness intervention for stress eating to reduce cortisol and abdominal fat among overweight and obese women: an exploratory randomized controlled study. J Obes 2011:2011:651936. Doi: 10.1155/2011/651936., 1, 13Google Scholar
- 20.Baer RA. Mindfulness-based treatment approaches: Clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. Burlington: Academic Press; 2005.Google Scholar
- 23.Black D, Semple R, Pokhrel P, Grenard J. Component processes of executive function-mindfulness, self-control, and working memory-and their relationships with mental and behavioral health. Mindfulness. 2011;2(3):179–85. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-011-0057-2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Alberts HJ, Thewissen R, Raes L. Dealing with problematic eating behavior. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behavior, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern. Appetite. 2012;58(3):847–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 31.Dalen J, Smith BW, Shelley BM, Sloan AL, Leahigh L, Begay D. Pilot study: Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL): weight, eating behavior, and psychological outcomes associated with a mindfulness-based intervention for people with obesity. Complement Ther Med. 2010;18(6):260–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2010.09.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 34.Miller CK, Kristellar JL, Headings A, Nagaraja H, Miser F. Comparative effectiveness of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(11):1835–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2012.07.036.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 40.Abbott RA, Whear R, Rodgers LR, Bethel A, Thompson CJ, Kuyken W, et al. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness based cognitive therapy in vascular disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Psychosom Res. 2014;76(5):341–51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2014.02.012.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 46.Goodwin CL, Forman EM, Herbert JD, Butryn ML, Ledley GS. A pilot study examining the initial effectiveness of a brief acceptance-based behavior therapy for modifying diet and physical activity among cardiac patients. Behav Modif. 2012;36(2):199–27. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445511427770.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 49.• Mantzios M, Wilson JC. Making concrete construals mindful: a novel approach for developing mindfulness and self-compassion to assist weight loss. Psychol Health. 2014;29:422–41. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2013.863883. A randomized control trial to determine the effectiveness of using food diaries to record how and why participants eat found this to be a promising approach to promote long-term weight loss. CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 50.• Mantzios M, Wilson JC. Exploring mindfulness and mindfulness with self-compassion-centered interventions to assist weight loss: theoretical considerations and primary results of a randomized pilot study. Mindfulness. 2015;6:824–35. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-014-0325-z. A randomized control trial to explore the role of mindfulness meditation vs. mindfulness and self-compassion meditation to support weight loss and maintenance found mindfulness with self-compassion to be a more effective approach. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 51.Hayes SC, Follette VM, Linehan MM. Mindfulness and acceptance: expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition. New York: Guilford Press; 2004.Google Scholar
- 52.• Daubenmier J, Moran PJ, Kristeller J, Acree M, Bacchetti P, Kemeny ME, et al. Effects of a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention in adults with obesity: a randomized clinical trial. Obesity. 2016;24:794–804. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21396. A randomized control trial to determine the effectiveness of adding mindfulness-based eating and stress management practices to a diet-exercise program found this not to show substantial weight loss benefits but may promote long-term metabolic improvements. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 53.• Mason AE, Epel ES, Aschbacher K, Lustig RH, Acree M, Kristeller J, et al. Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial. Appetite. 2016;100:86–93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.009. A randomized control trial to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness training on overcoming reward-driven eating and psychological stress found this practice may promote weight loss. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 55.• Camilleri GM, Mejean C, Bellisle F, Hercberg S, Peneau S. Association between mindfulness and weight status in a general population from the NutriNet-Sante study. PLoS ONE 2015:10. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127447. A cross-sectional analysis to examine the relationship between mindfulness and weight status found that those with higher mindfulness scores were less likely to be overweight. Google Scholar