Advertisement

Current Obesity Reports

, Volume 3, Issue 2, pp 183–198 | Cite as

Activity-Friendly Built Environment Attributes and Adult Adiposity

  • Takemi Sugiyama
  • Mohammad Javad Koohsari
  • Suzanne Mavoa
  • Neville OwenEmail author
Obesity Prevention (A Must, Section Editor)

Abstract

Physically-active and sedentary behaviors are determinants of adult weight gain and are associated with built-environment attributes. We reviewed recent evidence on built-environment attributes with adult adiposity. Of 41 relevant papers identified, 34 reported cross-sectional, six recorded prospective findings, and one included both cross-sectional and prospective designs. In 15 cross-sectional examinations of composite built environment indices (walkability; composite other), seven identified significant positive relationships in the expected direction; of 42 instances examining particular walkability elements (density, connectivity, land use mix), 13 were positive. Of 44 instances examining proximity of utilitarian and recreational destinations, there were 13 positive associations; and, of 41 instances examining pedestrian-environment attributes, 12 were positive. In the seven prospective studies, 20 sets of relationships were identified – nine were significant and in the expected direction. Evidence on built environment/adiposity relationships remains modest and could be strengthened through improvements in measurement methods and with further evidence from prospective studies.

Keywords

Body mass index Waist circumference Built environment Walkability Pedestrian infrastructure Aesthetics Safety Recreational facilities Parks Population density Destinations Street connectivity Land use mix Urban design Physical activity Walking Sedentary behavior Sitting Cross-sectional study Prospective study Adult adiposity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Koohsari is supported by a National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) Program Grant [#569940] and by the Victorian Government’s Operational Infrastructure Support Program. Owen is supported by a NHMRC Program Grant [#569940], a Senior Principal Research Fellowship [NHMRC #1003960] and the Victorian Government’s Operational Infrastructure Support Program. Mavoa is supported by Community Indicators Victoria, which is funded by VicHealth. Sugiyama is supported by the NHMRC (PhD scholarship within Centre of Research Excellence) and the National Institute of Health (research subcontract from UC San Diego).

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Takemi Sugiyama is employed by the University of South Australia, and he has received honoraria from the University of Sydney for a PhD Thesis review.

Mohammad Javad Koohsari is employed by Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes.

Suzanne Mavoa is employed by the University of Melbourne and Massey University.

Neville Owen is employed by Baker IDI Heart & Diabetes; he has received book royalties from Sage publishers; he has received travel/accommodations expenses covered or reimbursed from University of British Colombia; American Institute for Cancer Research.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Bray G, Bouchard C, editors. Handbook of obesity, vol. 1, epidemiology, etiology, and physiopathology. 3 rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Haskell WL, Lee I, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2007;39(8):1423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Owen N, Sparling P, Healy G, Dunstan D, Matthews C. Sedentary behavior: emerging evidence for a new health risk. Mayo Clin Proc. 2010;85:1138–41.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Matthews CE, Chen KY, Freedson PS, Buchowski MS, Beech BM, Pate RR, et al. Amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in the United States, 2003–2004. Am J Epidemiol. 2008;167(7):875–81.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Troiano RP, Berrigan D, Dodd KW, Mâsse LC, Tilert T, McDowell M. Physical activity in the United States measured by accelerometer. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(1):181–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Owen N, Healy GN, Matthews CE, Dunstan DW. Too much sitting: the population-health science of sedentary behavior. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2010;38(3):105–13.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Owen N, Sugiyama T, Eakin EE, Gardiner PA, Tremblay MS, Sallis JF. Adults’ sedentary behavior: determinants and interventions. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(2):189–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Owen N, Hamilton M. Sedentary time and obesity. In: Bray G, Bouchard C, editors. Handbook of obesity, Vol 1, epidemiology, etiology, and physiopathology. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2014.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Owen N. The emerging public-health science of sedentary time: what is the relevance to low and middle income countries? Rev Bras Ativ Fís Saúde. 2013;17(6):457–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Owen N, Humpel N, Leslie E, Bauman A, Sallis JF. Understanding environmental influences on walking: review and research agenda. Am J Prev Med. 2004;27(1):67–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.••
    Sugiyama T, Neuhaus M, Cole R, Giles-Corti B, Owen N. Destination and route attributes associated with adults’ walking: a review. Med Sci Sports Exer. 2012;44:1275–86. This paper reviews evidence identifying multiple associations with adults walking behaviors of two specific environmental attributes that are central to the neighborhood walkability construct.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rose G. Sick individuals and sick populations. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30(3):427–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roof K, Oleru N. Public health: Seattle and King County’s push for the built environment. J Environ Health. 2008;71(1):24–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Obesity and the built environment: improving public health through community design; 2004.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sallis JF, Cervero RB, Ascher W, Henderson KA, Kraft MK, Kerr J. An ecological approach to creating active living communities. Annu Rev Public Health. 2006;27:297–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sallis JF, Owen N, Fisher EB. Ecological models of health behavior. In: Glanz K, Rimer B, Viswanath K, editors. Health behavior and health education: theory, research, and practice. 4th ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2008. p. 465–82.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sugiyama T, Salmon J, Dunstan DW, Bauman AE, Owen N. Neighborhood walkability and TV viewing time among Australian adults. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(6):444–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kozo J, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Kerr J, Cain K, Saelens BE, et al. Sedentary behaviors of adults in relation to neighborhood walkability and income. Health Psychol. 2012;31(6):704–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mendoza JA, Salmon J, Sallis JF. Partnerships for progress in active living: from research to action. Health Place. 2012;18(1):1–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kerr J, Sallis JF, Owen N, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Cerin E, Sugiyama T, et al. Advancing science and policy through a coordinated international study of physical activity and built environments: IPEN adult methods. J Phys Act Health. 2013;10(4):581–601.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van Dyck D, Cerin E, Conway TL, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Owen N, Kerr J, et al. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults’ leisure-time physical activity: findings from Belgium, Australia and the USA. Health Place. 2013;19:59–68.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Van Dyck D, Cerin E, Conway TL, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Owen N, Kerr J, et al. Perceived neighborhood environmental attributes associated with adults’ transport-related walking and cycling: findings from the USA, Australia, and Belgium. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:70.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Frank LD, Sallis JF, Conway TL, Chapman JE, Saelens BE, Bachman W. Many pathways from land use to health: associations between neighborhood walkability and active transportation, body mass index, and air quality. J Am Plan Assoc. 2006;72(1):75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Brownson RC, Hoehner CM, Day K, Forsyth A, Sallis JF. Measuring the built environment for physical activity: state of the science. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(4):S99–S123. e12.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Owen N, Cerin E, Leslie E, Dutoit L, Coffee N, Frank LD, et al. Neighborhood walkability and the walking behavior of Australian adults. Am J Prev Med. 2007;33(5):387–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Leslie E, Coffee N, Frank L, Owen N, Bauman A, Hugo G. Walkability of local communities: using geographic information systems to objectively assess relevant environmental attributes. Health Place. 2007;13(1):111–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Koohsari MJ, Sugiyama T, Kaczynski AT, Owen N. Associations of leisure-time sitting in cars with neighborhood walkability. J Phys Act Health. 2013.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cerin E, Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD. Neighborhood environment walkability scale: validity and development of a short form. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2006;38(9):1682–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.••
    Cerin E, Conway TL, Cain KL, Kerr J, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Owen N, et al. Sharing good NEWS across the world: developing comparable scores across 12 countries for the neighborhood environment walkability scale (NEWS). BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):309. This study describes an internationally-validated tool and explains the associated methodology for assessing adults’ perceptions of neighborhood environmental attributes previously shown to be associated with walking behaviors.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.•
    Gebel K, Bauman AE, Sugiyama T, Owen N. Mismatch between perceived and objectively assessed neighborhood walkability attributes: prospective relationships with walking and weight gain. Health Place. 2011;17(2):519–24. This study provides evidence that adults who live in neighborhoods that are objectively determined to be high-walkable but good to see their neighborhoods as low walkable become less active and gain more weight over the subsequent four years.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Sallis JF, Glanz K. Physical activity and food environments: solutions to the obesity epidemic. Milbank Q. 2009;87(1):123–54.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Papas MA, Alberg AJ, Ewing R, Helzlsouer KJ, Gary TL, Klassen AC. The built environment and obesity. Epidemiol Rev. 2007;29(1):129–43.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Owen N. Effects of the built environment on obesity. In: Bouchard C, Katzmarczyk B, editors. Physical activity and obesity. Champaign: Human Kinetics; 2010. p. 199–202.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Adams MA, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Conway TL, Saelens BE, Frank LD, et al. Neighborhood environment profiles related to physical activity and weight status: a latent profile analysis. Prev Med. 2011;52(5):326–31.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bai H, Stanis SAW, Kaczynski AT, Besenyi GM. Perceptions of neighborhood park quality: associations with physical activity and body mass index. Ann Behav Med. 2013;45:S39–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Black JL, Macinko J, Dixon LB, Fryer GE. Neighborhoods and obesity in New York City. Health Place. 2010;16(3):489–99.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Brown BB, Smith KR, Hanson H, Fan JX, Kowaleski-Jones L, Zick CD. Neighborhood design for walking and biking physical activity and body mass index. Am J Prev Med. 2013;44(3):231–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Burgoine T, Alvanides S, Lake AA. Assessing the obesogenic environment of North East England. Health Place. 2011;17(3):738–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Casagrande SS, Gittelsohn J, Zonderman AB, Evans MK, Gary-Webb TL. Association of walkability with obesity in Baltimore city, Maryland. Am J Public Health. 2011;101:S318–S24.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Charreire H, Weber C, Chaix B, Salze P, Casey R, Banos A, et al. Identifying built environmental patterns using cluster analysis and GIS: relationships with walking, cycling and body mass index in French adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9.Google Scholar
  41. 41.•
    Christian H, Giles-Corti B, Knuiman M, Timperio A, Foster S. The influence of the built environment, social environment and health behaviors on body mass index. results from RESIDE. Prev Med. 2011;53(1–2):57–60. This study provides evidence from a unique Australian built-environment and health study on the interactions of built environment attributes with the social environment and other health behaviors as these can influence adult adiposity.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Coombes E, Jones AP, Hillsdon M. The relationship of physical activity and overweight to objectively measured green space accessibility and use. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(6):816–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Cummins S, Fagg J. Does greener mean thinner? associations between neighbourhood greenspace and weight status among adults in England. Int J Obes. 2012;36(8):1108–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Eisenstein AR, Prohaska TR, Kruger J, Satariano WA, Hooker S, Buchner D, et al. Environmental correlates of overweight and obesity in community residing older adults. J Aging Health. 2011;23(6):994–1009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fish JS, Ettner S, Ang A, Brown AF. Association of perceived neighborhood safety on body mass index. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(11):2296–303.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hess DB, Russell JK. Influence of built environment and transportation access on body mass index of older adults: survey results from Erie County, New York. Transp Policy. 2012;20:130–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.•
    Hoehner CM, Handy SL, Yan Y, Blair SN, Berrigan D. Association between neighborhood walkability, cardiorespiratory fitness and body-mass index. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(12):1707–16. This study provides evidence that residents of urban areas with higher population density and with older, more traditional styles of housing developments have more-favorable indices of objectively-measured fitness and adiposity.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jaime PC, Duran AC, Sarti FM, Lock K. Investigating environmental determinants of diet, physical activity, and overweight among adults in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Urban Health Bull N Y Acad Med. 2011;88(3):567–81.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    James P, Troped PJ, Hart JE, Joshu CE, Colditz GA, Brownson RC, et al. Urban sprawl, physical activity, and body mass index: nurses’ health study and nurses’ health study II. Am J Public Health. 2013;103(2):369–75.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    King AC, Sallis JF, Frank LD, Saelens BE, Cain K, Conway TL, et al. Aging in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income: associations with physical activity and obesity in older adults. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(10):1525–33.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leal C, Bean K, Thomas F, Chaix B. Multicollinearity in associations between multiple environmental features and body weight and abdominal fat: using matching techniques to assess whether the associations are separable. Am J Epidemiol. 2012;175(11):1152–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Lovasi GS, Bader MDM, Quinn J, Neckerman K, Weiss C, Rundle A. Body mass index, safety hazards, and neighborhood attractiveness. Am J Prev Med. 2012;43(4):378–84.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Metaxatos P. Built environment, individual attributes, and variability of body mass index of drivers in the Chicago, Illinois, metropolitan area. Transp Res Rec. 2011;2231:93–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Michimi A, Wimberly MC. Natural environments, obesity, and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States. J Rural Health. 2012;28(4):398–407.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mowafi M, Khadr Z, Bennett G, Hill A, Kawachi I, Subramanian SV. Is access to neighborhood green space associated with BMI among Egyptians? a multilevel study of Cairo neighborhoods. Health Place. 2012;18(2):385–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Oyeyemi AL, Adegoke BO, Oyeyemi AY, Deforche B, De Bourdeaudhuij I, Sallis JF. Environmental factors associated with overweight among adults in Nigeria. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:32. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-9-32.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Pereira G, Christian H, Foster S, Boruff BJ, Bull F, Knuiman M, et al. The association between neighborhood greenness and weight status: an observational study in Perth Western Australia. Environ Health. 2013;12:49. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-49.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Pitts SBJ, McGuirt JT, Carr LJ, Wu Q, Keyserling TC. Associations between body mass index, shopping behaviors, amenity density, and characteristics of the neighborhood food environment among female adult Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participants in Eastern North Carolina. Ecol Food Nutr. 2012;51(6):526–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Pouliou T, Elliott SJ. Individual and socio-environmental determinants of overweight and obesity in Urban Canada. Health Place. 2010;16(2):389–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Powell-Wiley TM, Ayers CR, de Lemos JA, Lakoski SG, Vega GL, Grundy S, et al. Relationship between perceptions about neighborhood environment and prevalent obesity: data from the Dallas Heart Study. Obesity. 2013;21(1):E14–21.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Prince SA, Kristjansson EA, Russell K, Billette JM, Sawada M, Ali A, et al. A multilevel analysis of neighbourhood built and social environments and adult self-reported physical activity and body mass index in Ottawa, Canada. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2011;8(10):3953–78.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Prince SA, Kristjansson EA, Russell K, Billette JM, Sawada MC, Ali A, et al. Relationships between neighborhoods, physical activity, and obesity: a multilevel analysis of a large Canadian city. Obesity. 2012;20(10):2093–100.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rundle A, Quinn J, Lovasi G, Bader MDM, Yousefzadeh P, Weiss C, et al. Associations between body mass index and park proximity, size, cleanliness, and recreational facilities. Am J Health Promot. 2013;27(4):262–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Van Dyck D, Cerin E, Cardon G, Deforche B, Sallis JF, Owen N, et al. Physical activity as a mediator of the associations between neighborhood walkability and adiposity in Belgian adults. Health Place. 2010;16(5):952–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Wang FH, Wen M, Xu YQ. Population-adjusted street connectivity, urbanicity and risk of obesity in the US. Appl Geogr. 2013;41:1–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Wen M, Kowaleski-Jones L. The built environment and risk of obesity in the United States: racial-ethnic disparities. Health Place. 2012;18(6):1314–22.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Wen M, Maloney TN. Latino residential isolation and the risk of obesity in Utah: the role of neighborhood socioeconomic, built-environmental, and subcultural context. J Immigr Minor Health. 2011;13(6):1134–41.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Auchincloss AH, Mujahid MS, Shen MW, Michos ED, Whitt-Glover MC, Roux AVD. Neighborhood health-promoting resources and obesity risk (the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis). Obesity. 2013;21(3):621–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Black JL, Macinko J. The changing distribution and determinants of obesity in the neighborhoods of New York City, 2003-2007. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(7):765–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.•
    Coogan PF, White LF, Evans SR, Adler TJ, Hathaway KM, Palmer JR, et al. Longitudinal assessment of urban form and weight gain in African-American women. Am J Prev Med. 2011;40(4):411–8. Large-scale prospective study with some 18,000 African-American women, showing that the risks of weight gain and obesity are higher for residents of rural and low-density suburban neighbourhoods.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Michael YL, Gold R, Perrin N, Hillier TA. Built environment and change in body mass index in older women. Health Place. 2013;22:7–10.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Sarkar C, Gallacher J, Webster C. Built environment configuration and change in body mass index: the Caerphilly Prospective Study (CaPS). Health Place. 2013;19:33–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Zhao ZX, Kaestner R. Effects of urban sprawl on obesity. J Health Econ. 2010;29(6):779–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Berry TR, Spence JC, Blanchard CM, Cutumisu N, Edwards J, Selfridge G. A longitudinal and cross-sectional examination of the relationship between reasons for choosing a neighbourhood, physical activity and body mass index. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2010;7:57. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-7-57.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Sallis JF, Bowles HR, Bauman A, Ainsworth BE, Bull FC, Craig CL, et al. Neighborhood environments and physical activity among adults in 11 countries. Am J Prev Med. 2009;36(6):484–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Sundquist K, Eriksson U, Kawakami N, Skog L, Ohlsson H, Arvidsson D. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking behavior: the Swedish Neighborhood and Physical Activity (SNAP) study. Soc Sci Med. 2011;72(8):1266–73.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Li F, Fisher KJ, Brownson RC, Bosworth M. Multilevel modelling of built environment characteristics related to neighbourhood walking activity in older adults. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2005;59(7):558–64.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Rodríguez DA, Evenson KR, Diez Roux AV, Brines SJ. Land use, residential density, and walking: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37(5):397–404.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Hankinson AL, Daviglus ML, Bouchard C, et al. Maintaining a high physical activity level over 20 years and weight gain. JAMA. 2010;304(23):2603–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Hu G, Jousilahti P, Borodulin K, Barengo NC, Lakka TA, Nissinen A, et al. Occupational, commuting and leisure-time physical activity in relation to coronary heart disease among middle-aged Finnish men and women. Atherosclerosis. 2007;194(2):490–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Cervero R, Ferrell C, Murphy S. Transit-oriented development and joint development in the United States: a literature review. TCRP Research Results Digest. 2002(52).Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Marteau TM, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC. Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science. 2012;337(6101):1492–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Takemi Sugiyama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Mohammad Javad Koohsari
    • 2
    • 3
  • Suzanne Mavoa
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
  • Neville Owen
    • 2
    • 5
    • 6
    • 7
    Email author
  1. 1.Social Epidemiology and Evaluation Research Group, Sansom Institute for Health Research & School of Population HealthUniversity of South AustraliaAdelaideAustralia
  2. 2.Behavioural Epidemiology LaboratoryBaker IDI Heart and Diabetes InstituteMelbourneAustralia
  3. 3.McCaughey VicHealth Centre for Community Wellbeing, Melbourne School of Population and Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.SHORE & Whariki Research Centre, School of HealthMassey UniversityAucklandNew Zealand
  5. 5.Melbourne School of Population and Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  6. 6.School of Population HealthThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  7. 7.Department of MedicineMonash UniversityMelbourneAustralia

Personalised recommendations