Norovirus Disease in Older Adults Living in Long-Term Care Facilities: Strategies for Management
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Purpose of Review
Noroviruses are the most common cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks in long-term care facility (LTCFs). This review summarizes the most up-to-date knowledge on norovirus infection in LTCFs with the aim of identifying potential strategies for management.
LTCF residents are at greater risk of norovirus infection. Early identification of norovirus infection and prompt initiation of appropriate supportive therapy are required to reduce morbidity and mortality. Measures to prevent outbreaks and reduce the risk of norovirus infection in LTCFs include timely diagnosis and implementation of infection control interventions to limit virus transmission.
Current guidelines for prevention and control are based on generic principles of infection control. Real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays have been the gold standard for the rapid and sensitive detection of noroviruses. With the recent breakthroughs of human norovirus in vitro culture, doors are now opened to evaluate the efficacy of environmental disinfectants and hand hygiene options. Additionally, development of licensed vaccines against noroviruses may provide another important tool for infection prevention among high-risk individuals.
KeywordsNorovirus Older adults Long-term care facilities Management
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Yingxi Chen, Aron Hall and Martyn Kirk declare no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent
This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.
Human and Animal Rights
All reported studies/experiments with human or animal subjects performed by the authors have been previously published and complied with all applicable ethical standards (including the Helsinki declaration and its amendments, institutional/national research committee standards, and international/national/institutional guidelines).
The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance
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