The Loss of Power and Need for Power Training in Older Adults

Abstract

Purpose of Review

This review elucidated the mechanisms of age-related functional impairments, as well as the benefits of power training, with particular emphasis on balance recovery and fall prevention.

Recent Findings

The aging process leads to several changes that occur in the nervous system and in the skeletal muscle that lead to impaired neuromuscular performance, especially muscle power, i.e., the ability to produce rapid force. Consequently, older individuals experience decreased functional mobility and impaired balance and increased physical frailty and risk for falls. As a counter-measurement to these age-associated changes, power training appears to result in greater improvements than does traditional strength training, especially in high velocity/power actions and in functional mobility, balance, and fall risk.

Results and discussion

Power training appears to be a viable alternative to traditional strength training, resulting in at least similar improvements in performance and function, but is particularly beneficial for tasks that involve high power production, such as balance recovery and fall prevention.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: •• Of major importance

  1. 1.

    Aagaard P, Suetta C, Caserotti P, et al. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(1):49–64.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Duffy CR, Stewart D, Pecoraro F, et al. Comparison of power and EMG during 6-s all-out cycling between young and older women. J Sports Sci. 2012;30(12):1311–21.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Kanda K, Hashizume K, Miwa T, et al. Overloading a muscle does not alter the rate of motoneuronal loss in aged rats. Neurobiol Aging. 1996;17(4):613–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Kido A, Tanaka N, Stein RB. Spinal excitation and inhibition decrease as humans age. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004;82(4):238–48.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    McNeil CJ, Doherty TJ, Stashuk DW, et al. Motor unit number estimates in the tibialis anterior muscle of young, old, and very old men. Muscle Nerve. 2005;31(4):461–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Campbell MJ, McComas AJ, Petito F. Physiological changes in ageing muscles. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1973;36(2):174–82.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Lexell J, Taylor CC, Sjostrom M. What is the cause of the ageing atrophy? Total number, size and proportion of different fiber types studied in whole vastus lateralis muscle from 15- to 83-year-old men. J Neurol Sci. 1988;84(2–3):275–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Tam SL, Gordon T. Mechanisms controlling axonal sprouting at the neuromuscular junction. J Neurocytol. 2003;32(5–8):961–74.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.••

    Cheng YY, Wei SH, Chen PY, et al. Can sit-to-stand lower limb muscle power predict fall status? Gait Posture. 2014;40(3):403–7. These papers are most recent work, properly executed, that reinforce existing knowledge on their topics.

  10. 10.

    Makrides L, Heigenhauser GJ, McCartney N, et al. Maximal short term exercise capacity in healthy subjects aged 15–70 years. Clin Sci (Lond). 1985;69(2):197–205.

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Kallman DA, Plato CC, Tobin JD. The role of muscle loss in the age-related decline of grip strength: cross-sectional and longitudinal perspectives. J Gerontol. 1990;45(3):M82–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Young A, Skelton DA. Applied physiology of strength and power in old age. Int J Sports Med. 1994;15(3):149–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Bosco C, Komi PV. Influence of aging on the mechanical behavior of leg extensor muscles. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1980;45(2–3):209–19.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    de Haan A, van Doorn JE, Sargeant AJ. Age-related changes in power output during repetitive contractions of rat medial gastrocnemius muscle. Pflugers Arch. 1988;412(6):665–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Andersen JL. Muscle fibre type adaptation in the elderly human muscle. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2003;13(1):40–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Goodpaster BH, Carlson CL, Visser M, et al. Attenuation of skeletal muscle and strength in the elderly: the Health ABC study. J Appl Physiol. 2001;90(6):2157–65.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Nair KS. Muscle protein turnover: methodological issues and the effect of aging. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995;50:107–12.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Welle S, Thornton C, Jozefowicz R, et al. Myofibrillar protein synthesis in young and old men. Am J Physiol. 1993;264(5 Pt 1):E693–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Lexell J, Downham DY. The occurrence of fibre-type grouping in healthy human muscle: a quantitative study of cross-sections of whole vastus lateralis from men between 15 and 83 years. Acta Neuropathol. 1991;81(4):377–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Essen-Gustavsson B, Borges O. Histochemical and metabolic characteristics of human skeletal muscle in relation to age. Acta Physiol Scand. 1986;126(1):107–14.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Kosek DJ, Kim JS, Petrella JK, et al. Efficacy of 3 days/wk resistance training on myofiber hypertrophy and myogenic mechanisms in young vs. older adults. J Appl Physiol. 2006;101(2):531–44.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Jakobsson F, Borg K, Edstrom L, et al. Use of motor units in relation to muscle fiber type and size in man. Muscle Nerve. 1988;11(12):1211–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Larsson L. Histochemical characteristics of human skeletal muscle during aging. Acta Physiol Scand. 1983;117(3):469–71.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Rawson ES. Enhanced fatigue resistance in older adults during repeated sets of intermittent contractions. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(1):251–6.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Frontera WR, Hughes VA, Fielding RA, et al. Aging of skeletal muscle: a 12-yr longitudinal study. J Appl Physiol. 2000;88(4):1321–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lexell J. Human aging, muscle mass, and fiber type composition. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1995;50:11–6.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    Andersen JL, Terzis G, Kryger A. Increase in the degree of coexpression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in skeletal muscle fibers of the very old. Muscle Nerve. 1999;22(4):449–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.••

    Randhawa A, Wakeling JM. Associations between muscle structure and contractile performance in seniors. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2013;28(6):705–11. Recent work that provides a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the neuromotor physiological impairments experienced with aging.

  29. 29.••

    Clark DJ, Pojednic RM, Reid KF, et al. Longitudinal decline of neuromuscular activation and power in healthy older adults. 2013. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. Recent work that provides a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the neuromotor physiological impairments experienced with aging.

  30. 30.

    Trappe S, Godard M, Gallagher P, et al. Resistance training improves single muscle fiber contractile function in older women. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281(2):C398–406.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    Delbono O, O’Rourke KS, Ettinger WH. Excitation-calcium release uncoupling in aged single human skeletal muscle fibers. J Membr Biol. 1995;148(3):211–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Reid KF, Doros G, Clark DJ, et al. Muscle power failure in mobility-limited older adults: preserved single fiber function despite lower whole muscle size, quality and rate of neuromuscular activation. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(6):2289–301.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.••

    Power GA, Minozzo FC, Spendiff S, et al. Reduction in single muscle fiber rate of force development with aging is not attenuated in world class older masters athletes. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2016;310(4):C318–27. Recent work that provides a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the neuromotor physiological impairments experienced with aging.

  34. 34.

    Aagaard P, Andersen JL. Correlation between contractile strength and myosin heavy chain isoform composition in human skeletal muscle. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998;30(8):1217–22.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Andersen JL, et al. Increased rate of force development and neural drive of human skeletal muscle following resistance training. J Appl Physiol. 2002;93(4):1318–26.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Aagaard P, Simonsen EB, Trolle M, et al. Moment and power generation during maximal knee extensions performed at low and high speeds. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1994;69(5):376–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    Marcus RL, Addison O, Kidde JP, et al. Skeletal muscle fat infiltration: impact of age, inactivity, and exercise. J Nutr Health Aging. 2010;14(5):362–6.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    Ryan AS, Nicklas BJ. Age-related changes in fat deposition in mid-thigh muscle in women: relationships with metabolic cardiovascular disease risk factors. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 1999;23(2):126–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    Goodpaster BH, Wolf D. Skeletal muscle lipid accumulation in obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. Pediatr Diabetes. 2004;5(4):219–26.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    Tuttle LJ, Sinacore DR, Mueller MJ. Intermuscular adipose tissue is muscle specific and associated with poor functional performance. J Aging Res. 2012;2012:172957.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.••

    Inacio M, Ryan AS, Bair WN, et al. Gluteal muscle composition differentiates fallers from non-fallers in community dwelling older adults. BMC Geriatr. 2014;14:37. Recent work that provides a fundamental contribution to the understanding of the neuromotor physiological impairments experienced with aging.

  42. 42.

    Kenney, L., J. Wilmore, and D. Costill, Physiology of sport and exercise. 5th ed. 2008, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  43. 43.

    Suetta C, Aagaard P, Rosted A, et al. Training-induced changes in muscle CSA, muscle strength, EMG, and rate of force development in elderly subjects after long-term unilateral disuse. J Appl Physiol. 2004;97(5):1954–61.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    Newton RU, Hakkinen K, Hakkinen A, et al. Mixed-methods resistance training increases power and strength of young and older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(8):1367–75.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Sharman MJ, Newton RU, Triplett-McBride T, et al. Changes in myosin heavy chain composition with heavy resistance training in 60- to 75-year-old men and women. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84(1–2):127–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. 46.

    Foldvari M, Clark M, Laviolette LC, et al. Association of muscle power with functional status in community-dwelling elderly women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2000;55(4):M192–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    Bean JF, Leveille SG, Kiely DK, et al. A comparison of leg power and leg strength within the InCHIANTI study: which influences mobility more? J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003;58(8):728–33.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    Bonnefoy M, Jauffret M, Jusot JF. Muscle power of lower extremities in relation to functional ability and nutritional status in very elderly people. J Nutr Health Aging. 2007;11(3):223–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    Puthoff ML, Nielsen DH. Relationships among impairments in lower-extremity strength and power, functional limitations, and disability in older adults. Phys Ther. 2007;87(10):1334–47.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    Skelton DA, Greig CA, Davies JM, et al. Strength, power and related functional ability of healthy people aged 65–89 years. Age Ageing. 1994;23(5):371–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Reid KF, Fielding RA. Skeletal muscle power: a critical determinant of physical functioning in older adults. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2012;40(1):4–12.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    Bottaro M, Machado SN, Nogueira W, et al. Effect of high versus low-velocity resistance training on muscular fitness and functional performance in older men. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2007;99(3):257–64.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    Nogueira W, Gentil P, Mello SN, et al. Effects of power training on muscle thickness of older men. Int J Sports Med. 2009;30(3):200–4.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    Reid KF, Callahan DM, Carabello RJ, et al. Lower extremity power training in elderly subjects with mobility limitations: a randomized controlled trial. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2008;20(4):337–43.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Orr R, de Vos NJ, Singh NA, et al. Power training improves balance in healthy older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2006;61(1):78–85.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    Pereira A, Izquierdo M, Silva AJ, et al. Muscle performance and functional capacity retention in older women after high-speed power training cessation. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47(8):620–4.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    Hakkinen K, Kallinen M, Izquierdo M, et al. Changes in agonist–antagonist EMG, muscle CSA, and force during strength training in middle-aged and older people. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1998;84(4):1341–9.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  58. 58.••

    Beltran Valls MR, Dimauro I, Brunelli A, et al. Explosive type of moderate-resistance training induces functional, cardiovascular, and molecular adaptations in the elderly. Age (Dordr). 2014;36(2):759–72. One of the few studies that properly investigated the metabolic effects of this specific type of resistance training.

  59. 59.••

    Piirainen JM, Cronin NJ, Avela J, et al. Effects of plyometric and pneumatic explosive strength training on neuromuscular function and dynamic balance control in 60-70 year old males. J Electromyogr Kinesiol. 2014;24(2):246–52. Recent work among the few existing that compares the effects of power training with another modality of resistance training.

  60. 60.

    Shaw JM, Snow CM. Weighted vest exercise improves indices of fall risk in older women. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1998;53(1):M53–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.••

    Ramirez-Villada JF, Leon-Ariza HH, Arguello-Gutierrez YP, et al. Effect of high impact movements on body composition, strength and bone mineral density on women over 60 years. Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol. 2016;51(2):68–74. Recent work among the few existing that compares the effects of power training with another modality of resistance training.

  62. 62.••

    Reid KF, Martin KI, Doros G, et al. Comparative effects of light or heavy resistance power training for improving lower extremity power and physical performance in mobility-limited older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2015;70(3):374–80. Recent work among the few existing that compares the effects of power training with another modality of resistance training.

  63. 63.

    de Vos NJ, Singh NA, Ross DA, et al. Optimal load for increasing muscle power during explosive resistance training in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2005;60(5):638–47.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.••

    Glenn JM, Gray M, Binns A. The effects of loaded and unloaded high-velocity resistance training on functional fitness among community-dwelling older adults. Age Ageing. 2015;44(6):926–31. Recent work among the few existing that compares the effects of power training with another modality of resistance training.

  65. 65.••

    Lopes, P.B., G. Pereira, A. Lodovico, et al., Strength and Power Training Effects on Lower Limb Force, Functional Capacity, and Static and Dynamic Balance in Older Female Adults. Rejuvenation Res, 2016. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  66. 66.

    Sayers SP, Gibson K. A comparison of high-speed power training and traditional slow-speed resistance training in older men and women. J Strength Cond Res. 2010;24(12):3369–80.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. 67.

    Marsh AP, Miller ME, Rejeski WJ, et al. Lower extremity muscle function after strength or power training in older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2009;17(4):416–43.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    Fielding RA, LeBrasseur NK, Cuoco A, et al. High-velocity resistance training increases skeletal muscle peak power in older women. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2002;50(4):655–62.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    Caserotti P, Aagaard P, Larsen JB, et al. Explosive heavy-resistance training in old and very old adults: changes in rapid muscle force, strength and power. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2008;18(6):773–82.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Sayers SP, Gibson K. Effects of high-speed power training on muscle performance and braking speed in older adults. J Aging Res. 2012;2012:426278.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Correa CS, LaRoche DP, Cadore EL, et al. 3 different types of strength training in older women. Int J Sports Med. 2012;33(12):962–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. 72.••

    Ramirez-Campillo R, Castillo A, de la Fuente CI, et al. High-speed resistance training is more effective than low-speed resistance training to increase functional capacity and muscle performance in older women. Exp Gerontol. 2014;58:51–7. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  73. 73.

    Wallerstein LF, Tricoli V, Barroso R, et al. Effects of strength and power training on neuromuscular variables in older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2012;20(2):171–85.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. 74.••

    Gray M, Di Brezzo R, Fort IL. The effects of power and strength training on bone mineral density in premenopausal women. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013;53(4):428–36. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  75. 75.

    Drey M, Zech A, Freiberger E, et al. Effects of strength training versus power training on physical performance in prefrail community-dwelling older adults. Gerontology. 2012;58(3):197–204.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. 76.••

    Leszczak TJ, Olson JM, Stafford J, et al. Early adaptations to eccentric and high-velocity training on strength and functional performance in community-dwelling older adults. J Strength Cond Res. 2013;27(2):442–8. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  77. 77.••

    Pelletier D, Gingras-Hill C, Boissy P. Power training in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot study on feasibility and efficacy. Physiother Can. 2013;65(2):176–82. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  78. 78.

    Sayers SP, Gibson K, Cook CR. Effect of high-speed power training on muscle performance, function, and pain in older adults with knee osteoarthritis: a pilot investigation. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2012;64(1):46–53.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  79. 79.

    Allen NE, Sherrington C, Canning CG, et al. Reduced muscle power is associated with slower walking velocity and falls in people with Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2010;16(4):261–4.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.••

    Ni M, Signorile JF, Balachandran A, et al. Power training induced change in bradykinesia and muscle power in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2016;23:37–44. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  81. 81.••

    Ni M, Signorile JF, Mooney K, et al. Comparative effect of power training and high-speed yoga on motor function in older patients with Parkinson disease. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2016;97(3):345–54. e15. Recent work among the even fewer literature that actually compares the effects of power training with traditional strength training in healthy older individuals, as well as in clinical populations.

  82. 82.

    Maki BE, Holliday PJ, Topper AK. A prospective study of postural balance and risk of falling in an ambulatory and independent elderly population. J Gerontol. 1994;49(2):M72–84.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    Tinetti ME, Speechley M, Ginter SF. Risk factors for falls among elderly persons living in the community. N Engl J Med. 1988;319(26):1701–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    Hausdorff JM, Rios DA, Edelberg HK. Gait variability and fall risk in community-living older adults: a 1-year prospective study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001;82(8):1050–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    WHO, W.H.O. Falls. 2012 [cited 2012 2012]; Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/other_injury/falls/en/index.html.

  86. 86.

    Alexander BH, Rivara FP, Wolf ME. The cost and frequency of hospitalization for fall-related injuries in older adults. Am J Public Health. 1992;82(7):1020–3.

    CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. 87.

    CDC. Injury Prevention & Control. 2012; Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/injury/wisqars/facts.html.

  88. 88.

    Englander F, Hodson TJ, Terregrossa RA. Economic dimensions of slip and fall injuries. J Forensic Sci. 1996;41(5):733–46.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    Hornbrook MC, Stevens VJ, Wingfield DJ, et al. Preventing falls among community-dwelling older persons: results from a randomized trial. Gerontologist. 1994;34(1):16–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    Stevens J. Fatalities and injuries from falls among older adults—United States, 1993–2003 and 2001–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006;55(45):1221–4.

    Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    Mille ML, Johnson ME, Martinez KM, et al. Age-dependent differences in lateral balance recovery through protective stepping. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2005;20(6):607–16.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  92. 92.

    Carty CP, Cronin NJ, Lichtwark GA, et al. Lower limb muscle moments and power during recovery from forward loss of balance in male and female single and multiple steppers. Clin Biomech (Bristol, Avon). 2012;27(10):1031–7.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. 93.••

    Mille, M.L., M. Johnson-Hilliard, K.M. Martinez, et al., One step, two steps, three steps more … directional vulnerability to falls in community-dwelling older people. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, 2013. Recent work that presents a fundamental understanding of medio-lateral balance control and its relationship with muscle composition.

  94. 94.

    Rogers MW, Mille ML. Lateral stability and falls in older people. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2003;31(4):182–7.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.••

    Addison O, Young P, Inacio M, et al. Hip but not thigh intramuscular adipose tissue is associated with poor balance and increased temporal gait variability in older adults. Curr Aging Sci. 2014;7(2):137–43. Recent work that presents a fundamental understanding of medio-lateral balance control and its relationship with muscle composition.

  96. 96.••

    Martinikorena I, Martinez-Ramirez A, Gomez M, et al. Gait variability related to muscle quality and muscle power output in frail nonagenarian older adults. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2016;17(2):162–7. Recent work that presents a fundamental understanding of medio-lateral balance control and its relationship with muscle composition.

  97. 97.

    Clark DJ, Patten C, Reid KF, et al. Muscle performance and physical function are associated with voluntary rate of neuromuscular activation in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2011;66(1):115–21.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.••

    Han L, Yang F. Strength or power, which is more important to prevent slip-related falls? Hum Mov Sci. 2015;44:192–200. These papers are most recent work, properly executed, that reinforce existing knowledge on their topics.

  99. 99.

    McNeil CJ, Vandervoort AA, Rice CL. Peripheral impairments cause a progressive age-related loss of strength and velocity-dependent power in the dorsiflexors. J Appl Physiol. 2007;102(5):1962–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Metter EJ, Conwit R, Tobin J, et al. Age-associated loss of power and strength in the upper extremities in women and men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1997;52(5):B267–76.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    Pojednic RM, Clark DJ, Patten C, et al. The specific contributions of force and velocity to muscle power in older adults. Exp Gerontol. 2012;47(8):608–13.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Article  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    Skelton DA, Kennedy J, Rutherford OM. Explosive power and asymmetry in leg muscle function in frequent fallers and non-fallers aged over 65. Age Ageing. 2002;31(2):119–25.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  103. 103.••

    Cadore EL, Casas-Herrero A, Zambom-Ferraresi F, et al. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians. Age (Dordr). 2014;36(2):773–85. To the author’s knowledge, these are potentially the only studies that specifically analyze the effects of power training on dynamic balance recovery and fall prevention.

  104. 104.••

    Pamukoff DN, Haakonssen EC, Zaccaria JA, et al. The effects of strength and power training on single-step balance recovery in older adults: a preliminary study. Clin Interv Aging. 2014;9:697–704. To the author’s knowledge, these are potentially the only studies that specifically analyze the effects of power training on dynamic balance recovery and fall prevention.

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mario Inacio.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Mario Inacio declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Inacio, M. The Loss of Power and Need for Power Training in Older Adults. Curr Geri Rep 5, 141–149 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13670-016-0176-7

Download citation

Keywords

  • Muscle Power
  • Power training
  • Aging
  • Mobility
  • Balance
  • Falls