Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 210–224 | Cite as

Primary Prevention of HPV through Vaccination: Update on the Current Global Status

  • Julia M. L. Brotherton
  • Patrick L. F. Zuber
  • Paul J. N. Bloem
Management of HPV and Associated Cervical Lesions (L Denny, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Management of HPV and Associated Cervical Lesions


Ten years after the first licencing of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, this paper reviews global information on programme coverage, as reported to WHO and from the published and grey literature. As of May 2016, 74 countries report that the HPV vaccine is on the national schedule or reimburse vaccine costs. We also summarise the latest available information on programme implementation, vaccine effectiveness, the nine-valent HPV vaccine and the accumulated safety experience with HPV vaccines.


Human papillomavirus HPV vaccine Immunisation Vaccine coverage 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Julia M. L. Brotherton declares to have been an investigator on investigator-designed unrestricted epidemiological research grants partially funded through Seqirus/Merck, but has received no personal financial benefits.

Patrick L.F. Zuber and Paul J. N. Bloem declare no conflict of interest.

The findings and conclusions in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the World Health Organization.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.


Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance

  1. 1.
    Brotherton JML, Bloem PN. HPV vaccination: current global status. Curr Obstet Gynecol Reports. 2015;4(4):220–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Naud PS, Roteli-Martins CM, De Carvalho NS, Teixeira JC, de Borba PC, Sanchez N, et al. Sustained efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine: final analysis of a long-term follow-up study up to 9.4 years post-vaccination. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2014;10(8):2147–62. doi: 10.4161/hv.29532.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Apter D, Wheeler CM, Paavonen J, Castellsague X, Garland SM, Skinner SR, et al. Efficacy of HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine against cervical infection and precancer in young women: final event-driven analysis of the randomised, double-blind PATRICIA trial. Clin Vaccin Immunol. 2015;22(4):361–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.•
    Nygård M, Saah A, Munk C, Tryggvadottir L, Enerly E, Hortlund M, et al. Evaluation of the long-term anti-human papillomavirus 6 (HPV6), 11, 16, and 18 immune responses generated by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2015;22:943–8. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00133-15. Study that suggests over 9 years of sustained antibodies are induced by the quadrivalent HPV vaccine.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.•
    Sankaranarayanan R, Prabhu PR, Pawlita M, Gheit T, Bhatla N, Muwonge R, et al. Immunogenicity and HPV infection after one, two, and three doses of quadrivalent HPV vaccine in girls in India: a multicentre prospective cohort study. The Lancet Oncology. 2015;17(1):67–77. First cohort study to suggest a protective effect of one dose of quadrivalent HPV vaccine on HPV infection. Further data from this study are awaited to confirm these initial findings.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Blomberg M, Dehlendorff C, Sand C, Kjaer SK. Dose related differences in effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccination against genital warts: a nationwide study of 550,000 young girls. Clin Infect Dis. 2015;61(5):676–82. doi: 10.1093/cid/civ364.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dominiak-Felden G, Gobbo C, Simondon F. Evaluating the early benefit of quadrivalent HPV vaccine on genital warts in Belgium: a cohort study. PLoS One. 2015;10(7), e0132404. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132404. eCollection 2015.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Herweijer E, Leval A, Ploner A, Eloranta S, Simard JF, Dillner J, et al. Association of varying number of doses of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine with incidence of condyloma. JAMA. 2014;311(6):597–603.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.•
    Kreimer AR, Struyf F, Del Rosario-Raymundo MR, Hildesheim A, Skinner SR, Wacholder S, et al. Efficacy of fewer than three doses of an HPV-16/18 AS04 adjuvanted vaccine: combined analysis of data from the Costa Rica Vaccine Trial and the PATRICIA Trial. Lancet Oncol. 2015;16(7):775–86. Analysis suggesting equivalent efficacy to three doses from one or two doses of bivalent HPV vaccine.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.•
    Cuschieri K, Kavanagh K, Moore C, Bhatia R, Love J, Pollock KG. Impact of partial bivalent HPV vaccination on vaccine-type infection: a population-based analysis. Br J Cancer advance online publication. 2016. doi: 10.1038/bjc.2016.97. First analysis to document population-based impact of one or two doses of bivalent HPV vaccine on HPV infection.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reagan-Steiner S, Yankey D, Jeyarajah J, Elam-Evans LD, Singleton JA, Curtis CR, et al. National, regional, state, and selected local area vaccination coverage among adolescents aged 13–17 years—United States, 2014. MMWR. 2015;64(29):784–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Markowitz LE, Liu G, Hariri S, Steinau M, Dunne EF, Unger ER. Prevalence of HPV after introduction of the vaccination program in the United States. Pediatrics Mar. 2016;137(3):1–9. doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-1968.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hariri S, Bennett NM, Niccolai LM, Schafer S, Park IU, Bloch KC, et al. Reduction in HPV 16/18-associated high grade cervical lesions following HPV vaccine introduction in the United States—2008–2012. Vaccine. 2015;33(13):1608–13. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.01.084.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hofstetter AM, Ompad DC, Stockwell MS, Rosenthal SL, Soren K. Human papillomavirus vaccination and cervical cytology outcomes among urban low-income minority females. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170:445–52. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3926.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Perkins RB, Legler A, Hanchate A. Trends in male and female genital warts among adolescents in a safety-net health care system 2004–2013: correlation with introduction of female and male human papillomavirus vaccination. Sex Transm Dis. 2015;42(12):665–8. doi: 10.1097/OLQ.0000000000000369.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Smith LM, Strumpf EC, Kaufman JS, Lofters A, Schwandt M, Lévesque LE. The early benefits of human papillomavirus vaccination on cervical dysplasia and anogenital warts. Pediatrics. 2015;135(5):e1131–40. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-2961.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mesher D, Panwar K, Thomas SL, Beddows S, Soldan K. Continuing reductions in HPV 16/18 in a population with high coverage of bivalent HPV vaccination in England: an ongoing cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2016;6:e009915. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009915.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cameron RL, Kavanagh K, Pan J, Love J, Cuschieri K, Robertson C, et al. Human papillomavirus prevalence and herd immunity after introduction of vaccination program, Scotland, 2009–2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2016;22(1):56–64. doi: 10.3201/eid2201.150736.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mollers M, King AJ, Knol MJ, Scherpenisse M, Meijer CJ, van der Klis FR, et al. Effectiveness of human papillomavirus vaccine against incident and persistent infections among young girls: results from a longitudinal Dutch cohort study. Vaccine. 2015;33(23):2678–83. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.016.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Arbyn M, Broeck DV, Benoy I, Bogers J, Depuydt C, Praet M, et al. Surveillance of effects of HPV vaccination in Belgium. Cancer Epidemiol. 2016;41:152–8. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2015.12.011.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Herweijer E, Sundström K, Ploner A, Uhnoo I, Sparén P, Arnheim-Dahlström L. Quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness against high-grade cervical lesions by age at vaccination: a population-based study. Int J Cancer. 2016;138:2867–74. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30035.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brotherton JM, Gertig DM, May C, Chappell G, Saville M. HPV vaccine impact in Australian women: ready for an HPV-based screening program. Med J Aust. 2016;204(5):184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Joura EA, Garland SM, Paavonen J, Ferris DG, Perez G, Ault KA, et al. Effect of the human papillomavirus (HPV) quadrivalent vaccine in a subgroup of women with cervical and vulvar disease: retrospective pooled analysis of trial data. BMJ (Clinical Research Ed). 2012;344:e1401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hildesheim A, Gonzalez P, Kreimer AR, Wacholder S, Schussler J, Rodriguez AC, et al. Impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 and 18 vaccination on prevalent infections and rates of cervical lesions after excisional treatment. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2016.02.021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.•
    Joura EA, Giuliano AR, Iversen OE, Bouchard C, Mao C, Mehlsen J, et al. A 9-valent HPV vaccine against infection and intraepithelial neoplasia in women. N Eng J Med. 2015;372(8):711–23. RCT analysis of the nine-valent HPV vaccine showing equivalent immunogenicity as quadrivalent vaccine against types 6/11/16/18 and high efficacy against types 31/33/45/52/58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Van Damme P, Olsson SE, Block S, Castellsague X, Gray GE, Herrera T, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of a 9-valent HPV vaccine. Pediatrics. 2015;136(1):e28–39.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Castellsagué X, Giuliano AR, Goldstone S, Guevara A, Mogensen O, Palefsky JM, et al. Immunogenicity and safety of the 9-valent HPV vaccine in men. Vaccine. 2015;33(48):6892–901. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.06.088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Garland SM, Cheung TH, McNeill S, Petersen LK, Romaguera J, Vazquez-Narvaez J, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a 9-valent HPV vaccine in females 12–26 years of age who previously received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. Vaccine. 2015;33:6855–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Macartney KK, Chiu C, Georgousakis M, Brotherton J. Safety of human papillomavirus vaccines: a review. Drug Saf. 2013;36:393–412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Einstein MH, Baron M, Levin MJ, Chatterjee A, Edwards RP, Zepp F, et al. Comparison of the immunogenicity and safety of Cervarix and Gardasil human papillomavirus (HPV) cervical cancer vaccines in healthy women aged 18–45 years. Human Vaccines. 2009;5(10):705–19.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    World Health Organization (June 2012). Information sheet. Observed rates of vaccine reactions. Human papilloma virus vaccines. Accessed 10 May 2016.
  32. 32.
    Brotherton JM, Gold MS, Kemp AS, McIntyre PB, Burgess MA, New South Wales Health HPV Adverse Events Panel, et al. Anaphylaxis following quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination. CMAJ. 2008;179(6):525–33.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kang LW, Crawford N, Tang ML, Buttery J, Royle J, Gold M, et al. Hypersensitivity reactions to human papillomavirus vaccine in Australian schoolgirls: retrospective cohort study. BMJ. 2008;337:a2642. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2642.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gee J, Naleway A, Shui I, Baggs J, Yin R, Li R, et al. Monitoring the safety of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine: findings from the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Vaccine. 2011;29(46):8279–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Bohlke K, Davis RL, Marcy SM, Braun MM, DeStefano F, Black SB, et al. Risk of anaphylaxis after vaccination of children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2003;112(4):815–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Rothman KJ, Greenland S. Causation and causal inference in epidemiology. Am J Public Health. 2005;95 Suppl 1:S144–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS); WHO secretariat. Global safety of vaccines: strengthening systems for monitoring, management and the role of GACVS. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2009;8(6):705–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, 12–13 June 2007. Wkly Epid Rec 2007; 82: 252–9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Buttery JP, Madin S, Crawford NW, Elia S, La Vincente S, Hanieh S, et al. Mass psychogenic response to human papillomavirus vaccination. Med J Aust. 2008;189(5):261–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Crawford NW, Clothier HJ, Elia S, Lazzaro T, Royle J, Buttery JP. Syncope and seizures following human papillomavirus vaccination: a retrospective case series. Med J Aust. 2011;194(1):16–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Block SL, Brown DR, Chatterjee A, Gold MA, Sings HL, Meibohm A, et al. Clinical trial and post-licensure safety profile of a prophylactic human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, and 18) L1 virus-like particle vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010;29(2):95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety (GACVS). Report of meeting held 17–18 June 2009. Wkly Epid Rec. 2009;84:325–32.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sutton I, Lahoria R, Tan I, Clouston P, Barnett M. CNS demyelination and quadrivalent HPV vaccination. Mult Scler. 2009;15(1):116–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Richards S, Chalkiadis G, Lakshman R, Buttery JP, Crawford NW. Complex regional pain syndrome following immunisation. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97(10):913–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kinoshita T, Abe RT, Hineno A, Tsunekawa K, Nakane S, Ikeda S. Peripheral sympathetic nerve dysfunction in adolescent Japanese girls following immunization with the human papillomavirus vaccine. Intern Med. 2014;53(19):2185–200.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Brinth LS, Pors K, Theibel AC, Mehlsen J. Orthostatic intolerance and postural tachycardia syndrome as suspected adverse effects of vaccination against human papilloma virus. Vaccine. 2015;33(22):2602–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Martínez-Lavín M, Martínez-Martínez LA, Reyes-Loyola P. HPV vaccination syndrome. A questionnaire-based study. Clin Rheumatol. 2015;34(11):1981–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Einstein MH, Baron M, Levin MJ, Chatterjee A, Fox B, Scholar S, et al. Comparative immunogenicity and safety of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine and HPV-6/11/16/18 vaccine: follow-up from months 12–24 in a phase III randomized study of healthy women aged 18–45 years. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7(12):1343–58.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Slade BA, Leidel L, Vellozzi C, et al. Postlicensure safety surveillance for quadrivalent human papillomavirus recombinant vaccine. JAMA. 2009;302(7):750–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gasparini R, Bonanni P, Levi M, et al. Safety and tolerability of Bivalent HPV vaccine: an Italian post-licensure study. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7(Suppl):136–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau, Ministry of Health Malaysia. MADRAC Bulletin April 2011. Accessed 10 May 2016.
  52. 52.
    van Klooster TM, Kemmeren JM, van der Maas NA, de Melker HE. Reported adverse events in girls aged 13–16 years after vaccination with the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16/18 vaccine in the Netherlands. Vaccine. 2011;29(28):4601–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. 2011;105(11):1489–99.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Tomljenovic L, Shaw CA. Aluminum vaccine adjuvants: are they safe? Curr Med Chem. 2011;18(17):2630–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.•
    Scheller NM, Svanström H, Pasternak B, Arnheim-Dahlström L, Sundström K, Fink K, et al. Quadrivalent HPV vaccination and risk of multiple sclerosis and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system. JAMA. 2015;313(1):54–61. Methodologically strong population-based two-country study including 4 million women demonstrating no increase in risk of multiple sclerosis in women vaccinated against HPV.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Chao C, Klein NP, Velicer CM, Sy LS, Slezak JM, Takhar H, et al. Surveillance of autoimmune conditions following routine use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine. J Intern Med. 2012;271(2):193–203.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Arnheim-Dahlström L, Pasternak B, Svanström H, Sparén P, Hviid A. Autoimmune, neurological, and venous thromboembolic adverse events after immunisation of adolescent girls with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine in Denmark and Sweden: cohort study. BMJ. 2013;347:f5906.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Agence nationale de sécurité des medicaments et des produits de santé. Vaccins anti-HPV et risque de maladies autoimmunes: étude pharmacoépidémiologique. Accessed 10 May 2016.
  59. 59.
    Siegrist CA, Lewis EM, Eskola J, Evans SJ, Black SB. Human papilloma virus immunization in adolescent and young adults: a cohort study to illustrate what events might be mistaken for adverse reactions. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007;26(11):979–84.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Markowitz LE, Tsu V, Deeks SL, Cubie H, Wang SA, Vicari AS, et al. Human papillomavirus vaccine introduction—the first five years. Vaccine. 2012;30 Suppl 5:F139–48.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    WHO/UNICEF Joint reporting Form, 1 May 2016. Accessed 15 May 2016.
  62. 62.
    WHO V3P. The Vaccine Product, Price and Procurement (V3P) Project. Accessed 19 April 2016.
  63. 63.
    PAHO/WHO. Eight in 10 adolescent girls in the Americas have access to HPV vaccine, following its introduction in Brazil. Washington DC, March 20, 2014. Accessed May 2016.
  64. 64.
    World Health Organization, Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Projections of national annual population 5–74 of age by single year of age and sex, 2010–2020. Geneva; 2016 update. Accessed 15 May 2016.
  65. 65.
    World Health Organization. Human papillomavirus vaccines: WHO position paper, October 2014. Weekly Epidemiologic Record WER. 2014;43(89):465–92. Accessed 15 May 2016
  66. 66.
  67. 67.
  68. 68.
    Graham DM, Isaranuwatchai W, Habbous S, de Oliveira C, Liu G, Siu LL, et al. A cost-effectiveness analysis of human papillomavirus vaccination of boys for the prevention of oropharyngeal cancer. Cancer. 2015;121(11):1785–92. doi: 10.1002/cncr.29111.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Olsen J, Jorgenson TR. Revisiting the cost-effectiveness of universal HPV-vaccination in Denmark accounting for all potentially vaccine preventable HPV-related diseases in males and females. Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2015;13:4. doi: 10.1186/s12962-015-0029-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Elfström KM, Lazzarato F, Franceschi S, Dillner J, Baussano I. Human papillomavirus vaccination of boys and extended catch-up vaccination: effects on the resilience of programs. J Infect Dis. 2016;213(2):199–205. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiv368.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Paul K. “Saving lives”: adapting and adopting human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination in Austria. Soc Sci Med. 2016;153:193e200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    UK Government. JCVI interim position statement on HPV vaccination of men who have sex with men (MSM). 2015. Accessed May 2016. Scholar
  73. 73.
    Torres-Rueda S, Rulisa S, Burchett H, Mivumbi V, Mounier-Jack S. HPV vaccine introduction in Rwanda: impacts on the broader health system. Sex Reprod Healthc. 2016;7:46–51. doi: 10.1016/j.srhc.2015.11.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Dorji T, Tshomo U, Phuntsho S, Tamang TD, Tshokey T, Baussano I, et al. Introduction of a national HPV vaccination program into Bhutan. Vaccine. 2015;33(31):3726–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Hanley SJ, Yoshioka E, Ito Y, Kishi R. HPV vaccination crisis in Japan. Lancet. 2015;385(9987):2571.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Baussano I, Lazzarato F, Ronco G, Dillner J, Franceschi S. Benefits of catch-up in vaccination against human papillomavirus in medium- and low-income countries. Int J Cancer. 2013;133(8):1876–81. doi: 10.1002/ijc.28197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Rehn M, Uhnoo I, Kühlmann-Berenzon S, Wallensten A, Sparén P, Netterlid E. Vaccine uptake after school-based delivery—a county-level evaluation of the implementation highest strategies for HPV catch-up vaccination in Sweden. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(3):e0149857. doi: 10.1371/journal.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    World Health Organization. Scaling-up HPV vaccine introduction. Geneva, 2016 (in press).
  79. 79.
    Herlihy N, Hutubessy R, Jit M. Current global pricing for human papillomavirus vaccines brings the greatest economic benefits to rich countries. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016;35(2):227–34. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme. Quadrivalent human papillomavirus (types 6, 11, 16, 18) recombinant vaccine, solution for injection, 0.5 mL, solution for injection pre-filled syringe single dose, Gardasil®—November 2011. Public Summary document. Accessed 15 May 2016.
  81. 81.
    European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. HPV vaccine schedules in European countries. 2016. Accessed 15 May 2016.
  82. 82.
    Patel H, Wilson E, Vizzotti C, Parston G, Prestt J, Darz A. Argentina’s successful implementation of a national human papillomavirus vaccination program. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016;35(2):301–8. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.2015.1416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Smith MA, Liu B, McIntyre P, Menzies R, Dey A, Canfell K. Trends in genital warts by socioeconomic status after the introduction of the national HPV vaccination program in Australia: analysis of national hospital data. BMC Infect Dis. 2016;16:52. doi: 10.1186/s12879-016-1347-z.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Barbaro B, Brotherton JM. Measuring HPV vaccination coverage in Australia: comparing two alternative population-based denominators. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2015;39(4):326–30. doi: 10.1111/1753-6405.12372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Drolet M, Deeks SL, Kliewer E, Musto G, Lambert P, Brisson M. Can high overall human papillomavirus vaccination coverage hide sociodemographic inequalities? An ecological analysis in Canada. Vaccine. 2016;34(16):1874–80. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.02.069.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Binagwaho A, Wagner CM, Gatera M, Karema C, Nutt CT, Ngabo F. Achieving high coverage in Rwanda’s national human papillomavirus vaccination programme. Bull WHO. 2012;90(8):623–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.•
    PATH, LSTHM. HPV vaccine lessons learned. Accessed 17 April 2016. Comprehensive and easily digestible summary (videos, briefs and slides) of a comprehensive review of HPV vaccine delivery experiences across 37 low- and middle-income countries.
  88. 88.
    Watson-Jones D, Mugo N, Lees S, Mathai M, Vusha S, Ndirangu G, et al. Access and attitudes to HPV vaccination amongst hard-to-reach populations in Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(6):e0123701. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0123701.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    LaMontagne DS, Barge S, Le NT, Mugisha E, Penny ME, Gandhi S, et al. Human papillomavirus vaccine delivery strategies that achieved high coverage in low- and middle-income countries. Bull WHO. 2011;89(11):821–30B.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Ladner J, Besson MH, Hampshire R, Tapert L, Chirenje M, Saba J. Assessment of eight HPV vaccination programs implemented in lowest income countries. BMC Pub Health. 2012;12:370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ladner J, Besson MH, Rodrigues M, Audureau E, Saba J. Performance of 21 HPV vaccination programs implemented in low and middle-income countries, 2009–2013. BMC Public Health. 2014;14:670.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    World Health Organization, Department of Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). Accessed 15 May 2016.
  93. 93.
    World Health Organization (2011) Global vaccine action plan. Accessed 15 May 2016.
  94. 94.
    Fua LY, Bonhomme LA, Cooper SC, Joseph JG, Zimet GD. Educational interventions to increase HPV vaccination acceptance: a systematic review. Vaccine. 2014;32:1901–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Niccolai LM, Hansen CE. Practice- and community-based interventions to increase human papillomavirus vaccine coverage a systematic review. JAMA Pediatr. 2015;169(7):686–92.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Baker ML, Figueroa-Downing D, De Oliveira Chiang ED, Villa L, Baggio ML, Eluf-Neto J, et al. Paving pathways: Brazil’s implementation of a national human papillomavirus immunization campaign. Rev Panam Salud Publica. 2015;38(2):163–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Raesima MM, Forhan SE, Voetsch AC, Hewitt S, Hariri S, Wang SA, et al. Human papillomavirus vaccination coverage among school girls in a demonstration project—Botswana, 2013. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64(40):1147–9. doi: 10.15585/mmwr.mm6440a5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia M. L. Brotherton
    • 1
  • Patrick L. F. Zuber
    • 2
  • Paul J. N. Bloem
    • 3
  1. 1.National HPV Vaccination Program Register, School of Population and Global HealthUniversity of MelbourneEast MelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Essential Medicines and Health ProductsWorld Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland
  3. 3.Expanded Programme of Immunization, World Health OrganizationGenevaSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations