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Comparison of the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet, Anti-Inflammatory Diet, Seventh-Day Adventist Diet, and Ketogenic Diet Relative to Cognition and Cognitive Decline

Abstract

Purpose of Review

Increasing evidence points toward the importance of diet and its impact on cognitive decline. This review seeks to clarify the impact of four diets on cognition: the Mediterranean diet, the anti-inflammatory diet, the Seventh Day Adventist diet, and the Ketogenic diet.

Recent Findings

Of the diets reviewed, the Mediterranean diet provides the strongest evidence for efficacy. Studies regarding the anti-inflammatory diet and Seventh Day Adventist diet are sparse, heterogeneous in quality and outcome measurements, providing limited reliable data. There is also minimal research confirming the cognitive benefits of the Ketogenic diet.

Summary

Increasing evidence supports the use of the Mediterranean diet to reduce cognitive decline. The MIND-diet, a combination of the Mediterranean and DASH diets, seems especially promising, likely due to its anti-inflammatory properties. The Ketogenic diet may also have potential efficacy; however, adherence in older populations may be difficult given frequent adverse effects. Future research should focus on long-term, well-controlled studies confirming the impact of various diets, as well as the combination of diets and lifestyle modification.

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To, J., Shao, Z.Y., Gandawidjaja, M. et al. Comparison of the Impact of the Mediterranean Diet, Anti-Inflammatory Diet, Seventh-Day Adventist Diet, and Ketogenic Diet Relative to Cognition and Cognitive Decline. Curr Nutr Rep 11, 161–171 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-022-00407-2

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Keywords

  • Mediterranean diet
  • MIND diet
  • Inflammation
  • Anti-inflammatory diet
  • Ketogenic diet
  • Ketone bodies
  • Medium chain triglycerides
  • Seventh Day Adventist diet
  • Adventist Health Study
  • Dementia
  • Cognitive function
  • Cognitive impairment