Current Nutrition Reports

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 183–197 | Cite as

Knowledge, Attitudes and Behaviours Related to Dietary Salt Intake in High-Income Countries: a Systematic Review

  • Neela BhanaEmail author
  • Jennifer Utter
  • Helen Eyles
Cardiovascular Disease (JHY Wu, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cardiovascular Disease


Purpose of Review

The purpose of this review was to examine the knowledge, attitudes and behaviours (KAB) related to dietary salt intake among adults in high-income countries.

Recent Findings

Overall (n = 24 studies across 12 countries), KAB related to dietary salt intake are low. While consumers are aware of the health implications of a high salt intake, fundamental knowledge regarding recommended dietary intake, primary food sources, and the relationship between salt and sodium is lacking. Salt added during cooking was more common than adding salt to food at the table. Many participants were confused by nutrition information panels, but food purchasing behaviours were positively influenced by front of package labelling.


Greater emphasis of individual KAB is required from future sodium reduction programmes with specific initiatives focusing on consumer education and awareness raising. By doing so, consumers will be adequately informed and empowered to make healthier food choices and reduce individual sodium intake.


Knowledge Attitude Behaviour Salt Sodium Consumer 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Neela Bhana, Jennifer Utter, and Helen Eyles declare they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

13668_2018_239_MOESM1_ESM.docx (14 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 13 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Population Health, Tamaki CampusUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.National Institute for Health Innovation, School of Population Health, Tamaki CampusUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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