Advertisement

Current Nutrition Reports

, Volume 5, Issue 3, pp 129–138 | Cite as

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Supermarket-Based Interventions Involving Product, Promotion, or Place on the Healthiness of Consumer Purchases

  • Adrian J. CameronEmail author
  • Emma Charlton
  • Winsfred W. Ngan
  • Gary Sacks
Cardiovascular Disease (JHY Wu, Section Editor)
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Topical Collection on Cardiovascular Disease

Abstract

Introduction

The supermarket is increasingly recognised as a key environment to promote healthy eating. No previous reviews have focused specifically on the effectiveness of interventions that target the in-store supermarket environment for improving the healthiness of population food purchases.

Methods

Systematic review of supermarket-based interventions related to nutrition. Interventions were included if they related to the type of products available for sale, promotion or consumer education and/or product placement. Interventions related to price and on-pack labelling were excluded. Outcomes included food purchasing, food consumption or body weight. Study quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project quality assessment tool.

Results

Of 50 included studies, the majority were conducted in the USA (74 %), with 33 % published in the last 3 years. Seventy percent of studies were rated as moderate (n = 11) or high (n= 24) quality. Positive effects were observed in 35 studies (70 %). Of the 15 studies that reported null or negative findings, most (n = 12) did not have a strong study design, large sample size or duration longer than 1 month.

Conclusions

Most high-quality studies targeting the supermarket food environment reported improvements in the healthiness of consumer purchases in response to the intervention. Although it is difficult to identify specific intervention options that are likely to be most effective and sustainable in this setting, shelf labelling (particularly using nutrition summary scores) stands out as being particularly promising.

Keywords

Supermarket Intervention Review Obesity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are currently working with a supermarket chain (Champions IGA) in a publicly funded collaborative project (with local and state government) to test a range of healthy eating interventions. No funding has been received from the retailer, but sales data are provided.

Financial Support

This work was supported by a VicHealth Innovation Grant (#22510) and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) [training fellowship APP1013313 to AJC; AJC and GS are researchers within a NHMRC Centre for Research Excellence in Obesity Policy and Food Systems (APP1041020)]. AJC and GS are the recipients of Australian Research Council Discovery Early Career Researcher Awards (project numbers DE160100141 and DE160100307).

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

Adrian J. Cameron has received financial support through grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Australian Research Council (ARC) and VicHealth.

Emma Charlton has received financial support through a grant from VicHealth.

Winsfred W. Ngan has received financial support through a grant from VicHealth.

Gary Sacks has received financial support through grants from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), the Australian Research Council (ARC) and VicHealth.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

13668_2016_172_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 27 kb)
13668_2016_172_MOESM2_ESM.docx (108 kb)
ESM 2 (DOCX 107 kb)

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. 1.
    Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Global Burden of Disease Profile, Australia, in Global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors study 2010, 2010: Seattle, WA. URL: http://www.healthdata.org/sites/default/files/files/country_profiles/GBD/ihme_gbd_country_report_australia.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Swinburn BA et al. The global obesity pandemic: shaped by global drivers and local environments. The Lancet. 2011;378(9793):804–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Foster M et al. ABARES Overview of the Australian food industry, 2009–10. In Australian Food Statistics 2009–10. Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry.: Canberra; 2011.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Caraher M, Coveney J. Public health nutrition and food policy. Public Health Nutr. 2004;7(5):591–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Osec Swiss Business Hub Canada. The Canadian Food Retail Sector; 2011. 2011. http://www.osec.ch/sites/default/files/bbf_Canada_FoodRetail_Feb2011.pdf.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    U.S. Department of Agiculture, Economic Research Service Food Expenditure Series.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
    Reardon T, Timmer CP, Minten B. Supermarket revolution in Asia and emerging development strategies to include small farmers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109(31):12332–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.••
    Thornton LE et al. Does the availability of snack foods in supermarkets vary internationally. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:56. International study of supermarket food environments demonstrating the need for supermarket interventions, particularly in relation to unhealthy discretionary food.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Charlton EL et al. Supermarkets and unhealthy food marketing: An international comparison of the content of supermarket catalogues/circulars. Prev Med. 2015;81:168–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dawson J. Retailer activity in shaping food choice. Food Qual Pref. 2013;28(1):339–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    McCarthy EJ. Basic marketing: a managerial approach. Homewood: Richard D. Irwin. Inc.; 1979.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Escaron AL et al. Supermarket and grocery store-based interventions to promote healthful food choices and eating practices: a systematic review. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013;10:E50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Glanz K, Bader MD, Iyer S. Retail grocery store marketing strategies and obesity: an integrative review. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(5):503–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liberato SC, Bailie R, Brimblecombe J. Nutrition interventions at point-of-sale to encourage healthier food purchasing: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2014;14(1):1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    van’t Riet J. Sales effects of product health information at points of purchase: a systematic review. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(3):418–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Mortimer G, Parker C. FactCheck: is our grocery market one of the most concentrated in the world? 2013. https://theconversation.com/factcheck-is-our-grocery-market-one-of-the-most-concentrated-in-the-world-16520.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Eyles H et al. Food pricing strategies, population diets, and non-communicable disease: a systematic review of simulation studies. PLoS Med. 2012;9(12):e1001353.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.•
    An R. Effectiveness of subsidies in promoting healthy food purchases and consumption: a review of field experiments. Public Health Nutr. 2013;16(07):1215–28. A review of the impact of price (subsidies) on healthy food purchases that is a useful adjunct to this review, noting that here, price interventions were not included.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP), Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies. URL: http://www.ephpp.ca/tools.html. Last accessed 16/05/2016.
  21. 21.
    Light L et al. Eat for Health - a Nutrition and Cancer Control Supermarket Intervention. Public Health Reports. 1989;104(5):443–50.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Patterson BH et al. Evaluation of a Supermarket Intervention - the Nci-Giant Food Eat for Health Study. Evaluation Review. 1992;16(5):464–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Rodgers AB et al. Eat for Health - a Supermarket Intervention for Nutrition and Cancer Risk Reduction. Am J Public Health. 1994;84(1):72–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Payne CR et al. Shopper marketing nutrition interventions: Social norms on grocery carts increase produce spending without increasing shopper budgets. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:287–91.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Russo JE et al. Nutrition Information in the Supermarket. J Consumer Res. 1986;13(1):48–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sutherland LA, Kaley LA, Fischer L. Guiding stars: the effect of a nutrition navigation program on consumer purchases at the supermarket. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(4):1090S–4S.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sigurdsson V, Larsen NM, Gunnarsson D. An in-store experimental analysis of consumers’ selection of fruits and vegetables. The Service Industries Journal. 2011;31(15):2587–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cawley J et al. The impact of a supermarket nutrition rating system on purchases of nutritious and less nutritious foods. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(1):8–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Paine-Andrews A et al. Health Marketing in the Supermarket. Health Marketing Quarterly. 1997;14(2):85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.•
    Nakamura R et al. Sales impact of displaying alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages in end-of-aisle locations: an observational study. Soc Sci Med. 2014;108:68–73. Interesting study is the first to estimate the impact of end-of-aisle displays on sales, albeit with an imperfect study design.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mullis RM et al. The shop smart for your heart grocery program. J Nutr Educ. 1987;19(5):225–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dwivedi G et al. Taste-test booth: An innovative tool in health promotion. J Canad Diet Assoc-Revue De L Association Canadienne Des Dietetistes. 1997;58(2):90–3.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Holmes AS et al. Effect of a grocery store intervention on sales of nutritious foods to youth and their families. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2012;112(6):897–901.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Shannon B et al. Promoting better nutrition in the grocery store using a game format: The shop smart game project. J Nutr Educ. 1990;22(4):183–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Scott JA et al. Nutrition Education in Supermarkets - the Life-Style-2000 Experience. Aust J Pub Health. 1991;15(1):49–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nikolova HD, Inman JJ. Healthy Choice: The Effect of Simplified Point-of-Sale Nutritional Information on Consumer Food Choice Behavior. J Marketing Res. 2015;52(6):817–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Levy AS et al. The Impact of a Nutrition Information Program on Food Purchases. J Public Policy & Marketing. 1985;4:1–13.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Dougherty MF, Wittsten AB, Guarino MA. Promoting Low-Fat Foods in the Supermarket Using Various Methods Including Videocassettes. J Am Diet Assoc. 1990;90(8):1106–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Curhan RC. Effects of Merchandising and Temporary Promotional Activities on Sales of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables in Supermarkets. J Marketing Res. 1974;11(3):286–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cotugna N, Vickery CE. Development and Supermarket Field Testing of Videotaped Nutrition Messages for Cancer Risk Reduction. Public Health Reports. 1992;107(6):691–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Bangia D, Palmer-Keenan DM. Grocery store podcast about omega-3 fatty acids influences shopping behaviors: a pilot study. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2014;46(6):616–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Berning JP, Chouinard HH, McCluskey JJ. Do Positive Nutrition Shelf Labels Affect Consumer Behavior? Findings from a Field Experiment with Scanner Data. Am J Agricultural Economics. 2010;93(2):364–9.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Teisl MF, Levy AS. Does nutrition labeling lead to healthier eating? J Food Distribution Res. 1997;28:18–27.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Schucker RE et al. Nutrition shelf-labeling and consumer purchase behavior. J Nutr Educ. 1992;24(2):75–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.••
    Foster GD et al. Placement and promotion strategies to increase sales of healthier products in supermarkets in low-income, ethnically diverse neighborhoods: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(6):1359–68. one of few large randomized controlled trials to test the effects of placement interventions.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Thapa J et al. Nudges in the Supermarket: Experience from Point of Sale Signs. in 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27–29, 2014. Minneapolis: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association; 2014.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Epstein LH et al. Effects of nutrient profiling and price changes based on NuVal(R) scores on food purchasing in an online experimental supermarket. Public Health Nutr. 2015;23:1–8.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Huang A et al. The effects on saturated fat purchases of providing Internet shoppers with purchase-specific dietary advice: A randomised trial. Plos Clinical Trials. 2006;1(5):e22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Papies EK et al. Using health primes to reduce unhealthy snack purchases among overweight consumers in a grocery store. Int J Obes (Lond). 2014;38(4):597–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Steenhuis I et al. The effectiveness of nutrition education and labeling in Dutch supermarkets. Am J Health Promot. 2004;18(3):221–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Kristal AR et al. Evaluation of a supermarket intervention to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. Am J Health Promot. 1997;11(6):422–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Forwood SE et al. Offering within-category food swaps to reduce energy density of food purchases: a study using an experimental online supermarket. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Achabal DD et al. The Effect of Nutrition P-O-P Signs on Consumer Attitudes and Behavior. J Retailing. 1987;63(1):9–24.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Ernst ND et al. Nutrition Education at the Point of Purchase - the Foods for Health Project Evaluated. Prev Med. 1986;15(1):60–73.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Sacks G et al. Impact of ‘traffic-light’ nutrition information on online food purchases in Australia. Aust N Z J Public Health. 2011;35(2):122–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Elbel B et al. The Introduction of a Supermarket via Tax-Credits in a Low-Income Area: The Influence on Purchasing and Consumption. 2015. Am J Health Prom.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Elbel B et al. Assessment of a government-subsidized supermarket in a high-need area on household food availability and children’s dietary intakes. Public Health Nutr. 2015;18(15):2881–90.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Cameron AJ, Waterlander WE, Svastisalee CM. The correlation between supermarket size and national obesity prevalence. BMC Obesity. 2014;1(1):27.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rudi J, Cakir M. The Effect of Grocery Shopping Frequency on the Healthfulness of Food Purchases. in 143rd Joint EAAE/AAEA Seminar, March 25–27, 2015. Naples: European Association of Agricultural Economists; 2015.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gustat J et al. Fresh produce consumption and the association between frequency of food shopping, car access, and distance to supermarkets. Prev Med Rep. 2015;2:47–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vogel C et al. Education and the Relationship Between Supermarket Environment and Diet. 2016. Am J Prev Med.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Hersey JC et al. Effects of front-of-package and shelf nutrition labeling systems on consumers. Nutr Rev. 2013;71(1):1–14.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Volkova E, Mhurchu CN. The influence of nutrition labeling and point-of-purchase information on food behaviours. Curr Obes Rep. 2015;4(1):19–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ni Mhurchu C et al. Effects of price discounts and tailored nutrition education on supermarket purchases: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;91(3):736–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Ball K et al. Influence of price discounts and skill-building strategies on purchase and consumption of healthy food and beverages: outcomes of the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;101(5):1055–64.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Armijo-Olivo S et al. Assessment of study quality for systematic reviews: a comparison of the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias Tool and the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool: methodological research. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012;18(1):12–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Moodie R et al. Profits and pandemics: prevention of harmful effects of tobacco, alcohol, and ultra-processed food and drink industries. Lancet. 2013;381(9867):670–9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Anderson ES et al. A computerized social cognitive intervention for nutrition behavior: Direct and mediated effects on fat, fiber, fruits, and vegetables, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations among food shoppers. Ann Behav Med. 2001;23(2):88–100.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Connell D, Goldberg JP, Folta SC. An intervention to increase fruit and vegetable consumption using audio communications: in-store public service announcements and audiotapes. J Health Commun. 2001;6(1):31–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    de Wijk RA et al. An In-Store Experiment on the Effect of Accessibility on Sales of Wholegrain and White Bread in Supermarkets. PLoS One. 2016;11(3):e0151915.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Jeffery RW et al. Nutrition Education in Supermarkets - an Unsuccessful Attempt to Influence Knowledge and Product Sales. J Behavioral Med. 1982;5(2):189–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Martinez-Donate AP et al. Evaluation of a pilot healthy eating intervention in restaurants and food stores of a rural community: a randomized community trial. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:136.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Milliron BJ, Woolf K, Appelhans BM. A point-of-purchase intervention featuring in-person supermarket education affects healthful food purchases. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2012;44(3):225–32.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Muller TE. The use of nutritive composition data at the point of purchase. J Nutr Educ. 1984;16(3):137–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Ogawa Y et al. Point-of-purchase health information encourages customers to purchase vegetables: objective analysis by using a point-of-sales system. Environ Health Prev Med. 2011;16(4):239–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Olson CM, Bisogni CA, Thonney PF. Evaluation of a supermarket nutrition education program. J Nutr Educ. 1982;14(4):141–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Salmon SJ et al. Social proof in the supermarket: Promoting healthy choices under low self-control conditions. Food Qual Pref. 2015;45:113–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Surkan PJ et al. Eat Right-Live Well! Supermarket Intervention Impact on Sales of Healthy Foods in a Low-Income Neighborhood. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2016;48(2):112–21. e1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Wagner JL, Winett RA, Walbert-Rankin J. Influences of a supermarket intervention on the food choices of parents and their children. J Nutr Educ. 1992;24(6):306–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Winett RA et al. Altering Shoppers Supermarket Purchases to Fit Nutritional Guidelines - an Interactive Information-System. J Applied Behavior Analysis. 1991;24(1):95–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Winett RA et al. Nutrition for a Lifetime System(c): A multimedia system for altering food supermarket shoppers’ purchases to meet nutritional guidelines. Computers in Human Behav. 1997;13(3):371–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Adrian J. Cameron
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Emma Charlton
    • 1
    • 2
  • Winsfred W. Ngan
    • 1
    • 2
  • Gary Sacks
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.School of Health and Social DevelopmentDeakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia
  2. 2.Global Obesity CentreDeakin UniversityBurwoodAustralia

Personalised recommendations