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The Role of Vitamin K in Chronic Aging Diseases: Inflammation, Cardiovascular Disease, and Osteoarthritis

Abstract

Vitamin K is an enzyme cofactor required for the carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins, several of which have been implicated in diseases of aging. Inflammation is recognized as a crucial component of many chronic aging diseases, and evidence suggests vitamin K has an anti-inflammatory action that is independent of its role as an enzyme cofactor. Vitamin K-dependent proteins and inflammation have been implicated in cardiovascular disease and osteoarthritis, which are leading causes of disability and mortality in older adults. The purpose of this review is to summarize observational studies and randomized trials focused on vitamin K status and inflammation, cardiovascular disease, and osteoarthritis. Although mechanistic evidence suggests a protective role for vitamin K in these age-related conditions, the benefit of vitamin K supplementation is controversial because observational data are equivocal and the number of randomized trials is few.

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Acknowledgments

All authors have read and approved the final manuscript. This study is supported by the National Institute of Arthritis Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (K01AR063167) and US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service under Cooperative Agreement No. 58-1950-7-707. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the view of the US Department of Agriculture.

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Correspondence to M. Kyla Shea.

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Stephanie G. Harshman and M. Kyla Shea declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Harshman, S.G., Shea, M.K. The Role of Vitamin K in Chronic Aging Diseases: Inflammation, Cardiovascular Disease, and Osteoarthritis. Curr Nutr Rep 5, 90–98 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-016-0162-x

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Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Inflammation
  • Older adults
  • Menaquinone
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Phylloquinone
  • Vitamin K