Skip to main content

Prenatal and/or Breastfeeding Food Exposures and Risk of Food Allergies in the Offspring

Abstract

The prevalence of food allergies is increasing in westernized societies. Allergen sensitization has been shown to occur very early in childhood, although the exact timing of sensitization is still under investigation. In recent years, studies have shown that the effect of consumption of peanuts during pregnancy could vary depending on mothers’ allergic status. For example, in high-risk mothers (with a background of atopy/food allergies), peanut consumption likely increases peanut allergy risk in offspring. Although several clinical studies have suggested that breastfeeding reduces food allergy, recent studies have shown no preventive benefit of breastfeeding on food allergy development in such high-risk populations. Also, epigenetic phenomena likely play an important role when evaluating the effect of prenatal exposure and breastfeeding on the risk of food allergies.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

Papers of particular interest, published recently, have been highlighted as: • Of importance •• Of major importance

  1. Boyce JA, Assa'ad A, Burks AW, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: summary of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel report. Nutr Res. 2011;31(1):61–75.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Gupta RS, Springston EE, Warrier MR, et al. The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):e9–17.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Grundy J, Matthews S, Bateman B, Dean T, Arshad SH. Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: Data from 2 sequential cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110(5):784–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Godbold JH, Sampson HA. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(6):1322–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Branum AM, Lukacs SL. Food allergy among children in the United States. Pediatrics. 2009;124(6):1549–55.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Bunyavanich S, Rifas-Shiman SL, Platts-Mills TA, et al. Peanut allergy prevalence among school-age children in a US cohort not selected for any disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):753–5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Ben-Shoshan M, Kagan RS, Alizadehfar R, et al. Is the prevalence of peanut allergy increasing? A 5-year follow-up study in children in Montreal. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(4):783–8.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Mullins RJ, Dear KB, Tang ML. Characteristics of childhood peanut allergy in the Australian Capital Territory, 1995 to 2007. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(3):689–93.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Koplin JJ, Osborne NJ, Wake M, et al. Can early introduction of egg prevent egg allergy in infants? A population-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(4):807–13.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Palmer DJ, Metcalfe J, Makrides M, et al. Early regular egg exposure in infants with eczema: a randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(2):387–92 e1. Describes very early sensitization to egg allergy in infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):803–13. First prospective study on early peanut introduction in children.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Szepfalusi Z, Loibichler C, Pichler J, Reisenberger K, Ebner C, Urbanek R. Direct evidence for transplacental allergen transfer. Pediatr Res. 2000;48(3):404–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Holloway JA, Warner JO, Vance GH, Diaper ND, Warner JA, Jones CA. Detection of house-dust-mite allergen in amniotic fluid and umbilical-cord blood. Lancet. 2000;356(9245):1900–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Casas R, Bjorksten B. Detection of Fel d 1-immunoglobulin G immune complexes in cord blood and sera from allergic and non-allergic mothers. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2001;12(2):59–64.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Syme MR, Paxton JW, Keelan JA. Drug transfer and metabolism by the human placenta. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(8):487–514.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Vadas P, Wai Y, Burks W, Perelman B. Detection of peanut allergens in breast milk of lactating women. JAMA. 2001;285(13):1746–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Des Roches A, Abbott M, Begin P, Paradis J, Paradis L. Oral pancreatic enzyme supplements can reduce excretion of ovalbumin in breast milk. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2014;24(1):62–3.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Fukushima Y, Kawata Y, Onda T, Kitagawa M. Consumption of cow milk and egg by lactating women and the presence of beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin in breast milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(1):30–5.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Troncone R, Scarcella A, Donatiello A, Cannataro P, Tarabuso A, Auricchio S. Passage of gliadin into human breast milk. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1987;76(3):453–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Hochwallner H, Alm J, Lupinek C, et al. Transmission of allergen-specific IgG and IgE from maternal blood into breast milk visualized with microarray technology. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(5):1213–5.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Prescott S, Saffery R. The role of epigenetic dysregulation in the epidemic of allergic disease. Clin Epigenetics. 2011;2(2):223–32.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Hayward AR. Development of lymphocyte responses and interactions in the human fetus and newborn. Immunol Rev. 1981;57:39–60.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Schumacher A, Brachwitz N, Sohr S, et al. Human chorionic gonadotropin attracts regulatory T cells into the fetal-maternal interface during early human pregnancy. J Immunol. 2009;182(9):5488–97.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Prescott SL, Macaubas C, Holt BJ, et al. Transplacental priming of the human immune system to environmental allergens: Universal skewing of initial T cell responses toward the Th2 cytokine profile. J Immunol. 1998;160(10):4730–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. White GP, Watt PM, Holt BJ, Holt PG. Differential patterns of methylation of the IFN-gamma promoter at CpG and non-CpG sites underlie differences in IFN-gamma gene expression between human neonatal and adult CD45RO- T cells. J Immunol. 2002;168(6):2820–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Hadis U, Wahl B, Schulz O, et al. Intestinal tolerance requires gut homing and expansion of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the lamina propria. Immunity. 2011;34(2):237–46.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Pellerin L, Jenks JA, Begin P, Bacchetta R, Nadeau KC. Regulatory T cells and their roles in immune dysregulation and allergy. Immunol Res. 2014;58(2–3):358–68.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Stefka AT, Feehley T, Tripathi P, et al. Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(36):13145–50.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Atarashi K, Tanoue T, Oshima K, et al. Treg induction by a rationally selected mixture of Clostridia strains from the human microbiota. Nature. 2013;500(7461):232–6. Presents murine model that underline the importance of commensal bacteria in the establishment of oral tolerance.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Strobel S, Mowat AM. Immune responses to dietary antigens: Oral tolerance. Immunol Today. 1998;19(4):173–81.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Strid J, Thomson M, Hourihane J, Kimber I, Strobel S. A novel model of sensitization and oral tolerance to peanut protein. Immunology. 2004;113(3):293–303.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Strid J, Strobel S. Skin barrier dysfunction and systemic sensitization to allergens through the skin. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005;4(5):531–41.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Bartnikas LM, Gurish MF, Burton OT, et al. Epicutaneous sensitization results in IgE-dependent intestinal mast cell expansion and food-induced anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(2):451–60 e1-6. Present murine model that underline the role of the skin as an important route for allergic sensitization.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Tordesillas L, Goswami R, Benede S, et al. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(11):4965–75.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Guadalupe I, Mitre E, Benitez S, Chico ME, Nutman TB, Cooper PJ. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(12):1846–50.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. King CL, Malhotra I, Mungai P, et al. B cell sensitization to helminthic infection develops in utero in humans. J Immunol. 1998;160(7):3578–84.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Jones AC, Miles EA, Warner JO, Colwell BM, Bryant TN, Warner JA. Fetal peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to mitogenic and allergenic stimuli during gestation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1996;7(3):109–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Szepfalusi Z, Nentwich I, Gerstmayr M, et al. Prenatal allergen contact with milk proteins. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997;27(1):28–35.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Rastogi D, Wang C, Mao X, Lendor C, Rothman PB, Miller RL. Antigen-specific immune responses to influenza vaccine in utero. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(6):1637–46.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Pfefferle PI, Sel S, Ege MJ, et al. Cord blood allergen-specific IgE is associated with reduced IFN-gamma production by cord blood cells: the Protection against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(4):711–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Tariq SM, Arshad SH, Matthews SM, Hakim EA. Elevated cord serum IgE increases the risk of aeroallergen sensitization without increasing respiratory allergic symptoms in early childhood. Clin Exp Allergy. 1999;29(8):1042–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Bonnelykke K, Pipper CB, Bisgaard H. Sensitization does not develop in utero. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(3):646–51.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2013;60(1):49–74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Ando T, Hatsushika K, Wako M, et al. Orally administered TGF-beta is biologically active in the intestinal mucosa and enhances oral tolerance. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(4):916–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M. Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. Lancet. 1995;346(8982):1065–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Kull I, Melen E, Alm J, et al. Breast-feeding in relation to asthma, lung function, and sensitization in young schoolchildren. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(5):1013–9.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Liao SL, Lai SH, Yeh KW, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced cow's milk sensitization in early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25(5):456–61.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  48. McGowan EC, Bloomberg GR, Gergen PJ, et al. Influence of early-life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(1):171–8. Well-performed study on early diagnosis of food allergy which underlines the importance of specific IgE levels and clinical evolution to establish prevalence.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Keet CA, Wood RA, Matsui EC. Limitations of reliance on specific IgE for epidemiologic surveillance of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(5):1207–9 e10.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Monti G, Marinaro L, Libanore V, Peltran A, Muratore MC, Silvestro L. Anaphylaxis due to fish hypersensitivity in an exclusively breastfed infant. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(11):1514–5.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Gerrard JW, Shenassa M. Sensitization to substances in breast milk: recognition, management and significance. Ann Allergy. 1983;51(2 Pt 2):300–2.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Warner JO. Food allergy in fully breast-fed infants. Clin Allergy. 1980;10(2):133–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Des Roches A, Paradis L, Singer S, Seidman E. An allergic reaction to peanut in an exclusively breastfed infant. Allergy. 2005;60(2):266–7.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Zeiger RS. Food allergen avoidance in the prevention of food allergy in infants and children. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6 Pt 3):1662–71.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Han Y, Chung SJ, Kim J, Ahn K, Lee SI. High sensitization rate to food allergens in breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(4):332–6.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Jelding-Dannemand E, Malby Schoos AM, Bisgaard H. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;In press. Well-conducted study on risk of food allergy from breastfeeding in high-risk population.

  57. Hong X, Wang G, Liu X, et al. Gene polymorphisms, breast-feeding, and development of food sensitization in early childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(2):374–81 e2. Highlight the underlying genetic predisposition on the food allergy risk from breastfeeding.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Fox AT, Sasieni P, du Toit G, Syed H, Lack G. Household peanut consumption as a risk factor for the development of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):417–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Brough HA, Simpson A, Makinson K, et al. Peanut allergy: effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(4):867–75. Provides human epidemiologic evidence for eczematous skin as an important route for food allergy sensitization.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Brough HA, Santos AF, Makinson K, et al. Peanut protein in household dust is related to household peanut consumption and is biologically active. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(3):630–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Kmietowicz Z. Women warned to avoid peanuts during pregnancy and lactation. BMJ. 1998;316(7149):1926.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  62. Hourihane JO, Aiken R, Briggs R, et al. The impact of government advice to pregnant mothers regarding peanut avoidance on the prevalence of peanut allergy in United Kingdom children at school entry. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(5):1197–202.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Hourihane JO, Dean TP, Warner JO. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges. BMJ. 1996;313(7056):518–21.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Frank L, Marian A, Visser M, Weinberg E, Potter PC. Exposure to peanuts in utero and in infancy and the development of sensitization to peanut allergens in young children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1999;10(1):27–32.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  65. DesRoches A, Infante-Rivard C, Paradis L, Paradis J, Haddad E. Peanut allergy: is maternal transmission of antigens during pregnancy and breastfeeding a risk factor? J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20(4):289–94.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Sicherer SH, Wood RA, Stablein D, et al. Maternal consumption of peanut during pregnancy is associated with peanut sensitization in atopic infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6):1191–7.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Frazier AL, Camargo Jr CA, Malspeis S, Willett WC, Young MC. Prospective study of peripregnancy consumption of peanuts or tree nuts by mothers and the risk of peanut or tree nut allergy in their offspring. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(2):156–62.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, et al. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(5):984–91.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  69. Katz Y, Rajuan N, Goldberg MR, et al. Early exposure to cow's milk protein is protective against IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(1):77–82 e1.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  70. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr. 1995;125(6):1401–12.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Schiavi E, Barletta B, Butteroni C, Corinti S, Boirivant M, Di Felice G. Oral therapeutic administration of a probiotic mixture suppresses established Th2 responses and systemic anaphylaxis in a murine model of food allergy. Allergy. 2011;66(4):499–508.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  72. Toomer OT, Ferguson M, Pereira M, et al. Maternal and postnatal dietary probiotic supplementation enhances splenic regulatory T helper cell population and reduces peanut allergen-induced hypersensitivity responses in mice. Immunobiology. 2014;219(9):661–70.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  73. Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2001;357(9262):1076–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Kim JY, Kwon JH, Ahn SH, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(2 Pt 2):e386–93.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Niers L, Martin R, Rijkers G, et al. The effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of eczema (the PandA study). Allergy. 2009;64(9):1349–58.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Boyle RJ, Ismail IH, Kivivuori S, et al. Lactobacillus GG treatment during pregnancy for the prevention of eczema: a randomized controlled trial. Allergy. 2011;66(4):509–16.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Dotterud CK, Storro O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(3):616–23.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Huurre A, Laitinen K, Rautava S, Korkeamaki M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal atopy and probiotic supplementation during pregnancy on infant sensitization: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38(8):1342–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  79. Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, et al. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99(11):1014–9.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Kuitunen M, Kukkonen K, Juntunen-Backman K, et al. Probiotics prevent IgE-associated allergy until age 5 years in cesarean-delivered children but not in the total cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):335–41.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  81. Hol J, van Leer EH, Elink Schuurman BE, et al. The acquisition of tolerance toward cow's milk through probiotic supplementation: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(6):1448–54.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  82. Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, et al. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112(6):1178–84.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Vassallo MF, Banerji A, Rudders SA, Clark S, Mullins RJ, Camargo Jr CA. Season of birth and food allergy in children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;104(4):307–13.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  84. Keet CA, Matsui EC, Savage JH, et al. Potential mechanisms for the association between fall birth and food allergy. Allergy. 2012;67(6):775–82.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Nwaru BI, Ahonen S, Kaila M, et al. Maternal diet during pregnancy and allergic sensitization in the offspring by 5 yrs of age: a prospective cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(1 Pt 1):29–37.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  86. Mullins RJ, Clark S, Wiley V, Eyles D, Camargo Jr CA. Neonatal vitamin D status and childhood peanut allergy: a pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;109(5):324–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  87. Weisse K, Winkler S, Hirche F, et al. Maternal and newborn vitamin D status and its impact on food allergy development in the German LINA cohort study. Allergy. 2013;68(2):220–8.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  88. Jones AP, Palmer D, Zhang G, Prescott SL. Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and allergic disease during infancy. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1128–35.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  89. Binkley KE, Leaver C, Ray JG. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011;7:17.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  90. Grunewald SM, Werthmann A, Schnarr B, et al. An antagonistic IL-4 mutant prevents type I allergy in the mouse: inhibition of the IL-4/IL-13 receptor system completely abrogates humoral immune response to allergen and development of allergic symptoms in vivo. J Immunol. 1998;160(8):4004–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Brandt EB, Munitz A, Orekov T, et al. Targeting IL-4/IL-13 signaling to alleviate oral allergen-induced diarrhea. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(1):53–8.

    CAS  PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  92. Seymour BWP, Coffman RL. A Critical Role for IL4 in the Neonate after Exposure to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in a Murine Model of Allergen Sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(2):AB146.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  93. Wenzel S, Wilbraham D, Fuller R, Getz EB, Longphre M. Effect of an interleukin-4 variant on late phase asthmatic response to allergen challenge in asthmatic patients: results of two phase 2a studies. Lancet. 2007;370(9596):1422–31.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Begin P, Nadeau KC. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2014;10(1):27. General review on the basics and epidemiological aspects of epigenetics in allergic disease.

    PubMed Central  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Muraro A, Halken S, Arshad SH, et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy. Allergy. 2014;69(5):590–601.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  96. Wetzig H, Schulz R, Diez U, Herbarth O, Viehweg B, Borte M. Associations between duration of breast-feeding, sensitization to hens' eggs and eczema infantum in one and two year old children at high risk of atopy. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2000;203(1):17–21.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  97. Mihrshahi S, Ampon R, Webb K, et al. The association between infant feeding practices and subsequent atopy among children with a family history of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37(5):671–9.

    CAS  PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Compliance with Ethics Guidelines

Conflict of Interest

François Graham, Philippe Bégin, Louis Paradis, and Anne Des Roches declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights and Informed Consent

This article does not contain any studies with human or animal subjects performed by any of the authors.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Anne Des Roches.

Additional information

This article is part of the Topical Collection on Prenatal, Neonatal, and Maternal Nutrition

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Graham, F., Bégin, P., Paradis, L. et al. Prenatal and/or Breastfeeding Food Exposures and Risk of Food Allergies in the Offspring. Curr Nutr Rep 4, 250–258 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-015-0126-6

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13668-015-0126-6

Keywords

  • Food allergy
  • Breastfeeding
  • Prevention
  • Pregnancy
  • Peanut
  • Milk
  • Egg
  • Atopic dermatitis
  • Tolerance
  • Sensitization
  • Allergen
  • Exposure
  • Introduction
  • Microbiota
  • Epigenetics
  • Epidemiology
  • Risk factors
  • Prenatal