Boyce JA, Assa'ad A, Burks AW, et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy in the United States: summary of the NIAID-sponsored expert panel report. Nutr Res. 2011;31(1):61–75.
Gupta RS, Springston EE, Warrier MR, et al. The prevalence, severity, and distribution of childhood food allergy in the United States. Pediatrics. 2011;128(1):e9–17.
Grundy J, Matthews S, Bateman B, Dean T, Arshad SH. Rising prevalence of allergy to peanut in children: Data from 2 sequential cohorts. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2002;110(5):784–9.
Sicherer SH, Munoz-Furlong A, Godbold JH, Sampson HA. US prevalence of self-reported peanut, tree nut, and sesame allergy: 11-year follow-up. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(6):1322–6.
Branum AM, Lukacs SL. Food allergy among children in the United States. Pediatrics. 2009;124(6):1549–55.
Bunyavanich S, Rifas-Shiman SL, Platts-Mills TA, et al. Peanut allergy prevalence among school-age children in a US cohort not selected for any disease. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(3):753–5.
Ben-Shoshan M, Kagan RS, Alizadehfar R, et al. Is the prevalence of peanut allergy increasing? A 5-year follow-up study in children in Montreal. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(4):783–8.
Mullins RJ, Dear KB, Tang ML. Characteristics of childhood peanut allergy in the Australian Capital Territory, 1995 to 2007. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(3):689–93.
Koplin JJ, Osborne NJ, Wake M, et al. Can early introduction of egg prevent egg allergy in infants? A population-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(4):807–13.
Palmer DJ, Metcalfe J, Makrides M, et al. Early regular egg exposure in infants with eczema: a randomized controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(2):387–92 e1. Describes very early sensitization to egg allergy in infants with moderate to severe atopic dermatitis.
Du Toit G, Roberts G, Sayre PH, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(9):803–13. First prospective study on early peanut introduction in children.
Szepfalusi Z, Loibichler C, Pichler J, Reisenberger K, Ebner C, Urbanek R. Direct evidence for transplacental allergen transfer. Pediatr Res. 2000;48(3):404–7.
Holloway JA, Warner JO, Vance GH, Diaper ND, Warner JA, Jones CA. Detection of house-dust-mite allergen in amniotic fluid and umbilical-cord blood. Lancet. 2000;356(9245):1900–2.
Casas R, Bjorksten B. Detection of Fel d 1-immunoglobulin G immune complexes in cord blood and sera from allergic and non-allergic mothers. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2001;12(2):59–64.
Syme MR, Paxton JW, Keelan JA. Drug transfer and metabolism by the human placenta. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2004;43(8):487–514.
Vadas P, Wai Y, Burks W, Perelman B. Detection of peanut allergens in breast milk of lactating women. JAMA. 2001;285(13):1746–8.
Des Roches A, Abbott M, Begin P, Paradis J, Paradis L. Oral pancreatic enzyme supplements can reduce excretion of ovalbumin in breast milk. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2014;24(1):62–3.
Fukushima Y, Kawata Y, Onda T, Kitagawa M. Consumption of cow milk and egg by lactating women and the presence of beta-lactoglobulin and ovalbumin in breast milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;65(1):30–5.
Troncone R, Scarcella A, Donatiello A, Cannataro P, Tarabuso A, Auricchio S. Passage of gliadin into human breast milk. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1987;76(3):453–6.
Hochwallner H, Alm J, Lupinek C, et al. Transmission of allergen-specific IgG and IgE from maternal blood into breast milk visualized with microarray technology. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(5):1213–5.
Prescott S, Saffery R. The role of epigenetic dysregulation in the epidemic of allergic disease. Clin Epigenetics. 2011;2(2):223–32.
Hayward AR. Development of lymphocyte responses and interactions in the human fetus and newborn. Immunol Rev. 1981;57:39–60.
Schumacher A, Brachwitz N, Sohr S, et al. Human chorionic gonadotropin attracts regulatory T cells into the fetal-maternal interface during early human pregnancy. J Immunol. 2009;182(9):5488–97.
Prescott SL, Macaubas C, Holt BJ, et al. Transplacental priming of the human immune system to environmental allergens: Universal skewing of initial T cell responses toward the Th2 cytokine profile. J Immunol. 1998;160(10):4730–7.
White GP, Watt PM, Holt BJ, Holt PG. Differential patterns of methylation of the IFN-gamma promoter at CpG and non-CpG sites underlie differences in IFN-gamma gene expression between human neonatal and adult CD45RO- T cells. J Immunol. 2002;168(6):2820–7.
Hadis U, Wahl B, Schulz O, et al. Intestinal tolerance requires gut homing and expansion of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the lamina propria. Immunity. 2011;34(2):237–46.
Pellerin L, Jenks JA, Begin P, Bacchetta R, Nadeau KC. Regulatory T cells and their roles in immune dysregulation and allergy. Immunol Res. 2014;58(2–3):358–68.
Stefka AT, Feehley T, Tripathi P, et al. Commensal bacteria protect against food allergen sensitization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111(36):13145–50.
Atarashi K, Tanoue T, Oshima K, et al. Treg induction by a rationally selected mixture of Clostridia strains from the human microbiota. Nature. 2013;500(7461):232–6. Presents murine model that underline the importance of commensal bacteria in the establishment of oral tolerance.
Strobel S, Mowat AM. Immune responses to dietary antigens: Oral tolerance. Immunol Today. 1998;19(4):173–81.
Strid J, Thomson M, Hourihane J, Kimber I, Strobel S. A novel model of sensitization and oral tolerance to peanut protein. Immunology. 2004;113(3):293–303.
Strid J, Strobel S. Skin barrier dysfunction and systemic sensitization to allergens through the skin. Curr Drug Targets Inflamm Allergy. 2005;4(5):531–41.
Bartnikas LM, Gurish MF, Burton OT, et al. Epicutaneous sensitization results in IgE-dependent intestinal mast cell expansion and food-induced anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;131(2):451–60 e1-6. Present murine model that underline the role of the skin as an important route for allergic sensitization.
Tordesillas L, Goswami R, Benede S, et al. Skin exposure promotes a Th2-dependent sensitization to peanut allergens. J Clin Invest. 2014;124(11):4965–75.
Guadalupe I, Mitre E, Benitez S, Chico ME, Nutman TB, Cooper PJ. Evidence for in utero sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides in newborns of mothers with ascariasis. J Infect Dis. 2009;199(12):1846–50.
King CL, Malhotra I, Mungai P, et al. B cell sensitization to helminthic infection develops in utero in humans. J Immunol. 1998;160(7):3578–84.
Jones AC, Miles EA, Warner JO, Colwell BM, Bryant TN, Warner JA. Fetal peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferative responses to mitogenic and allergenic stimuli during gestation. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1996;7(3):109–16.
Szepfalusi Z, Nentwich I, Gerstmayr M, et al. Prenatal allergen contact with milk proteins. Clin Exp Allergy. 1997;27(1):28–35.
Rastogi D, Wang C, Mao X, Lendor C, Rothman PB, Miller RL. Antigen-specific immune responses to influenza vaccine in utero. J Clin Invest. 2007;117(6):1637–46.
Pfefferle PI, Sel S, Ege MJ, et al. Cord blood allergen-specific IgE is associated with reduced IFN-gamma production by cord blood cells: the Protection against Allergy-Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) Study. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(4):711–6.
Tariq SM, Arshad SH, Matthews SM, Hakim EA. Elevated cord serum IgE increases the risk of aeroallergen sensitization without increasing respiratory allergic symptoms in early childhood. Clin Exp Allergy. 1999;29(8):1042–8.
Bonnelykke K, Pipper CB, Bisgaard H. Sensitization does not develop in utero. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(3):646–51.
Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human milk composition: nutrients and bioactive factors. Pediatr Clin N Am. 2013;60(1):49–74.
Ando T, Hatsushika K, Wako M, et al. Orally administered TGF-beta is biologically active in the intestinal mucosa and enhances oral tolerance. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;120(4):916–23.
Saarinen UM, Kajosaari M. Breastfeeding as prophylaxis against atopic disease: prospective follow-up study until 17 years old. Lancet. 1995;346(8982):1065–9.
Kull I, Melen E, Alm J, et al. Breast-feeding in relation to asthma, lung function, and sensitization in young schoolchildren. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;125(5):1013–9.
Liao SL, Lai SH, Yeh KW, et al. Exclusive breastfeeding is associated with reduced cow's milk sensitization in early childhood. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2014;25(5):456–61.
McGowan EC, Bloomberg GR, Gergen PJ, et al. Influence of early-life exposures on food sensitization and food allergy in an inner-city birth cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(1):171–8. Well-performed study on early diagnosis of food allergy which underlines the importance of specific IgE levels and clinical evolution to establish prevalence.
Keet CA, Wood RA, Matsui EC. Limitations of reliance on specific IgE for epidemiologic surveillance of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130(5):1207–9 e10.
Monti G, Marinaro L, Libanore V, Peltran A, Muratore MC, Silvestro L. Anaphylaxis due to fish hypersensitivity in an exclusively breastfed infant. Acta Paediatr. 2006;95(11):1514–5.
Gerrard JW, Shenassa M. Sensitization to substances in breast milk: recognition, management and significance. Ann Allergy. 1983;51(2 Pt 2):300–2.
Warner JO. Food allergy in fully breast-fed infants. Clin Allergy. 1980;10(2):133–6.
Des Roches A, Paradis L, Singer S, Seidman E. An allergic reaction to peanut in an exclusively breastfed infant. Allergy. 2005;60(2):266–7.
Zeiger RS. Food allergen avoidance in the prevention of food allergy in infants and children. Pediatrics. 2003;111(6 Pt 3):1662–71.
Han Y, Chung SJ, Kim J, Ahn K, Lee SI. High sensitization rate to food allergens in breastfed infants with atopic dermatitis. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2009;103(4):332–6.
Jelding-Dannemand E, Malby Schoos AM, Bisgaard H. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;In press. Well-conducted study on risk of food allergy from breastfeeding in high-risk population.
Hong X, Wang G, Liu X, et al. Gene polymorphisms, breast-feeding, and development of food sensitization in early childhood. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011;128(2):374–81 e2. Highlight the underlying genetic predisposition on the food allergy risk from breastfeeding.
Fox AT, Sasieni P, du Toit G, Syed H, Lack G. Household peanut consumption as a risk factor for the development of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):417–23.
Brough HA, Simpson A, Makinson K, et al. Peanut allergy: effect of environmental peanut exposure in children with filaggrin loss-of-function mutations. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;134(4):867–75. Provides human epidemiologic evidence for eczematous skin as an important route for food allergy sensitization.
Brough HA, Santos AF, Makinson K, et al. Peanut protein in household dust is related to household peanut consumption and is biologically active. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013;132(3):630–8.
Kmietowicz Z. Women warned to avoid peanuts during pregnancy and lactation. BMJ. 1998;316(7149):1926.
Hourihane JO, Aiken R, Briggs R, et al. The impact of government advice to pregnant mothers regarding peanut avoidance on the prevalence of peanut allergy in United Kingdom children at school entry. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2007;119(5):1197–202.
Hourihane JO, Dean TP, Warner JO. Peanut allergy in relation to heredity, maternal diet, and other atopic diseases: results of a questionnaire survey, skin prick testing, and food challenges. BMJ. 1996;313(7056):518–21.
Frank L, Marian A, Visser M, Weinberg E, Potter PC. Exposure to peanuts in utero and in infancy and the development of sensitization to peanut allergens in young children. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 1999;10(1):27–32.
DesRoches A, Infante-Rivard C, Paradis L, Paradis J, Haddad E. Peanut allergy: is maternal transmission of antigens during pregnancy and breastfeeding a risk factor? J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2010;20(4):289–94.
Sicherer SH, Wood RA, Stablein D, et al. Maternal consumption of peanut during pregnancy is associated with peanut sensitization in atopic infants. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(6):1191–7.
Frazier AL, Camargo Jr CA, Malspeis S, Willett WC, Young MC. Prospective study of peripregnancy consumption of peanuts or tree nuts by mothers and the risk of peanut or tree nut allergy in their offspring. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168(2):156–62.
Du Toit G, Katz Y, Sasieni P, et al. Early consumption of peanuts in infancy is associated with a low prevalence of peanut allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122(5):984–91.
Katz Y, Rajuan N, Goldberg MR, et al. Early exposure to cow's milk protein is protective against IgE-mediated cow's milk protein allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2010;126(1):77–82 e1.
Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr. 1995;125(6):1401–12.
Schiavi E, Barletta B, Butteroni C, Corinti S, Boirivant M, Di Felice G. Oral therapeutic administration of a probiotic mixture suppresses established Th2 responses and systemic anaphylaxis in a murine model of food allergy. Allergy. 2011;66(4):499–508.
Toomer OT, Ferguson M, Pereira M, et al. Maternal and postnatal dietary probiotic supplementation enhances splenic regulatory T helper cell population and reduces peanut allergen-induced hypersensitivity responses in mice. Immunobiology. 2014;219(9):661–70.
Kalliomaki M, Salminen S, Arvilommi H, Kero P, Koskinen P, Isolauri E. Probiotics in primary prevention of atopic disease: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2001;357(9262):1076–9.
Kim JY, Kwon JH, Ahn SH, et al. Effect of probiotic mix (Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus) in the primary prevention of eczema: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(2 Pt 2):e386–93.
Niers L, Martin R, Rijkers G, et al. The effects of selected probiotic strains on the development of eczema (the PandA study). Allergy. 2009;64(9):1349–58.
Boyle RJ, Ismail IH, Kivivuori S, et al. Lactobacillus GG treatment during pregnancy for the prevention of eczema: a randomized controlled trial. Allergy. 2011;66(4):509–16.
Dotterud CK, Storro O, Johnsen R, Oien T. Probiotics in pregnant women to prevent allergic disease: a randomized, double-blind trial. Br J Dermatol. 2010;163(3):616–23.
Huurre A, Laitinen K, Rautava S, Korkeamaki M, Isolauri E. Impact of maternal atopy and probiotic supplementation during pregnancy on infant sensitization: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38(8):1342–8.
Allen SJ, Jordan S, Storey M, et al. Probiotics in the prevention of eczema: a randomised controlled trial. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99(11):1014–9.
Kuitunen M, Kukkonen K, Juntunen-Backman K, et al. Probiotics prevent IgE-associated allergy until age 5 years in cesarean-delivered children but not in the total cohort. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(2):335–41.
Hol J, van Leer EH, Elink Schuurman BE, et al. The acquisition of tolerance toward cow's milk through probiotic supplementation: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;121(6):1448–54.
Dunstan JA, Mori TA, Barden A, et al. Fish oil supplementation in pregnancy modifies neonatal allergen-specific immune responses and clinical outcomes in infants at high risk of atopy: a randomized, controlled trial. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112(6):1178–84.
Vassallo MF, Banerji A, Rudders SA, Clark S, Mullins RJ, Camargo Jr CA. Season of birth and food allergy in children. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010;104(4):307–13.
Keet CA, Matsui EC, Savage JH, et al. Potential mechanisms for the association between fall birth and food allergy. Allergy. 2012;67(6):775–82.
Nwaru BI, Ahonen S, Kaila M, et al. Maternal diet during pregnancy and allergic sensitization in the offspring by 5 yrs of age: a prospective cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2010;21(1 Pt 1):29–37.
Mullins RJ, Clark S, Wiley V, Eyles D, Camargo Jr CA. Neonatal vitamin D status and childhood peanut allergy: a pilot study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2012;109(5):324–8.
Weisse K, Winkler S, Hirche F, et al. Maternal and newborn vitamin D status and its impact on food allergy development in the German LINA cohort study. Allergy. 2013;68(2):220–8.
Jones AP, Palmer D, Zhang G, Prescott SL. Cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and allergic disease during infancy. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1128–35.
Binkley KE, Leaver C, Ray JG. Antenatal risk factors for peanut allergy in children. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2011;7:17.
Grunewald SM, Werthmann A, Schnarr B, et al. An antagonistic IL-4 mutant prevents type I allergy in the mouse: inhibition of the IL-4/IL-13 receptor system completely abrogates humoral immune response to allergen and development of allergic symptoms in vivo. J Immunol. 1998;160(8):4004–9.
Brandt EB, Munitz A, Orekov T, et al. Targeting IL-4/IL-13 signaling to alleviate oral allergen-induced diarrhea. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;123(1):53–8.
Seymour BWP, Coffman RL. A Critical Role for IL4 in the Neonate after Exposure to Aerosolized Ovalbumin in a Murine Model of Allergen Sensitization. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015;135(2):AB146.
Wenzel S, Wilbraham D, Fuller R, Getz EB, Longphre M. Effect of an interleukin-4 variant on late phase asthmatic response to allergen challenge in asthmatic patients: results of two phase 2a studies. Lancet. 2007;370(9596):1422–31.
Begin P, Nadeau KC. Epigenetic regulation of asthma and allergic disease. Allergy Asthma Clin Immunol. 2014;10(1):27. General review on the basics and epidemiological aspects of epigenetics in allergic disease.
Muraro A, Halken S, Arshad SH, et al. EAACI food allergy and anaphylaxis guidelines. Primary prevention of food allergy. Allergy. 2014;69(5):590–601.
Wetzig H, Schulz R, Diez U, Herbarth O, Viehweg B, Borte M. Associations between duration of breast-feeding, sensitization to hens' eggs and eczema infantum in one and two year old children at high risk of atopy. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2000;203(1):17–21.
Mihrshahi S, Ampon R, Webb K, et al. The association between infant feeding practices and subsequent atopy among children with a family history of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2007;37(5):671–9.