Review of Religious Research

, Volume 60, Issue 1, pp 71–94 | Cite as

Has Society Grown More Hostile Towards Conservative Christians? Evidence from ANES Surveys

Original Paper


Several conservative Christian activists have complained of increasing hatred directed towards them and a majority of Christians today believe that persecution against them has increased in the United States. To date there has not been an empirical assessment of whether there are increasing levels of anti-Christian animosity with two groups as representative of conservative Christians: Christian fundamentalists and evangelicals. Levels of anti-Christian hostility has not significantly risen over the past few decades, however those with this hostility have become wealthier. Furthermore, there has not been a coalescing or lessening of support for conservative Christians by other Christians, as seen in the persistent level of mildly negative score by progressive Christians. One may envision hostility against conservative Christians in the twentieth century as something possessed by highly educated progressives with cultural influence but little ability to punish conservative Christians economically. The ability to threaten conservative Christians’ material well-being and the lack of support of conservative Christians by other Christians augments those with hostility towards conservative Christians in the twenty-first century. Conservative Christians are incorrect asserting that Christian hostility recently dramatically increased but may be correct in asserting that they face more problems due to that hostility.


Christian fundamentalists Evangelicals Anti-religious hostility Longitudinal analysis Christian activists 


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Copyright information

© Religious Research Association, Inc. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of North TexasDentonUSA

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