Skip to main content

Preparation of Al-Al2Cu Composites In-situ Processed Via Reactive Infiltration

Abstract

Al-Al2Cu composites due to their superior properties such as low density, high thermal stability, low thermal expansion coefficient, high hardness and good wear properties are appropriating candidates for automotive and aerospace industries. One advantage of the in-situ methods for processing composites is that the second phase materials are thermodynamically stable and therefore they can have a strong bond with the matrix alloy. In this study, Al-Al2Cu composites were processed by molten aluminum reaction with copper wires placed in a preheated steel mold. The solidified samples were then heat-treated to supplement the reaction between Al and Cu and convert the remained Cu to intermetallic. The diameter of the copper wires, the temperature at which the molten metal is poured, the time and temperature of heat treatment, as well as other material and processing parameters, were optimized for this purpose in order to transform the copper wires into rod-like intermetallic while also preventing the uniform distribution of the resulting intermetallic particles in the sample. Therefore, a preform was made by using 500 µm diameter copper wires with 99% purity. This preform was placed inside a steel mold pre-heated at 520 °C and subsequently molten pure aluminum (99.6% purity) at 720 °C was poured into the mold. As a result of the reaction between Cu and Al, aluminum- copper intermetallic compounds had been shaped within the form of continuous fibers. In order to complete the reaction the samples were heat-treated in a tube furnace at 570 °C for 20 min. Reference samples were prepared from pure aluminum as well as Al-Cu alloy with the same copper content as composites to be compared with the heat-treated and as-cast composites. The findings show that the acid pickling action improves solid-state inter-diffusion and homogenous infiltration into the Cu wires. The Cu core in the composite benefits from a uniform inter-diffusion in the solid-state thanks to a lengthy heat treatment period (40 min). Al4Cu9 composites made under and above eutectic heat treatment, respectively, have Al2Cu rosette-shaped in the matrix and around the Cu wires. The heat-treated composite produced the better tensile strength (81 MPa) and toughness (14 KJm–3) as compared to the composite Not-heat treated above the eutectic temperature (78 MPa and 12 KJm–3). The specimens were characterized by optical microscopy, SEM, EDS, microhardness measurement and tensile tests. The results showed that by using the abovementioned procedure the Al-Al2Cu composites with rod-shaped intermetallic can be produced successfully.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11
Fig. 12
Fig. 13
Fig. 14
Fig. 15
Fig. 16
Fig. 17

References

  1. S.C. Tjong, Novel nanoparticle-reinforced metal matrix composites with enhanced mechanical properties. Adv. Eng. Mater. 9(8), 639–652 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. M. Keneshloo, M. Paidar, M. Taheri, Role of SiC ceramic particles on the physical and mechanical properties of Al–4% Cu metal matrix composite fabricated via mechanical alloying. J. Compos. Mater. 51(9), 1285–1298 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. O. Marjani, M. Emamy, B. Pourbahari, Effects of grain refiners and cooling rates on the microstructure and tensile properties of A357Alloy. Metallogr. Microstruct. Anal. 10, 579–588 (2021)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. B. Andilab, C. Ravindran, N. Dogan, A. Lombardi, G. Byczynski, In-situ analysis of incipient melting of Al2Cu in a novel high strength Al-Cu casting alloy using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Mater. Charact. 159, 110064 (2020)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. A.M. Samuel, J. Gauthier, F.H. Samuel, Microstructural aspects of the dissolution and melting of Al 2 Cu phase in Al-Si alloys during solution heat treatment. Metall. and Mater. Trans. A. 27(7), 1785–1798 (1996)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. C.F. Feng, L. Froyen, In-situ P/M Al/(ZrB2+ Al2O3) MMCs: processing, microstructure and mechanical characterization. Acta Mater. 47(18), 4571–4583 (1999)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. R. Subramanian, C.G. McKamey, J.H. Schneibel, L.R. Buck, P.A. Menchhofer, Iron aluminide–Al2O3 composites by in situ displacement reactions: processing and mechanical properties. Mater. Sci. Eng., A. 254(1–2), 119–128 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. G.J. Zhang, Y. Beppu, T. Ohji, Reaction mechanism and microstructure development of strain tolerant in situ SiC–BN composites. Acta Mater. 49(1), 77–82 (2001)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. B. Yaqoob, R.A. Pasha, M. Awang et al., Comparison of mixing strategies and hybrid ratio optimization for mechanical properties enhancement of Al-CeO2-GNP’s metal matrix composite fabricated by friction stir processing. Metallogr. Microstruct. Anal. 8, 534–544 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  10. M. Cypris, Weclas, P. Greil, L.M. Schlier, N. Travitzky, W. Zhang, Application of macro-cellular SiC reactor to diesel engine-like injection and combustion conditions. In AIP Conference Proceedings 4 (Vol. 1453, No. 1, pp. 341–346), May. American Institute of Physics (2012)

  11. S.H. Wang, P.W. Kao, The strengthening effect of Al3Ti in high temperature deformation of Al–Al3Ti composites. Acta Mater. 46(8), 2675–2682 (1998)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. D.C. Van Aken, P.E. Krajewski, G.M. Vyletel, J.E. Allison, J.W. Jones, Recrystallization and grain growth phenomena in a particle-reinforced aluminum composite. Metall. Mater. Trans. A. 26(6), 1395–1405 (1995)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. X.C. Tong, H.S. Fang, Al-TiC composites in situ-processed by ingot metallurgy and rapid solidification technology: part II mechanical behavior. Metallurg Mater Trans A. 29(3), 893–902 (1998)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. S. Kleiner, F. Bertocco, F.A. Khalid, O. Beffort, Reactively synthesized nanostructured PM aluminium composite-microstructure stability and elevated temperature hardness response. Adv. Eng. Mater. 7(5), 380–383 (2005)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. R.S. Mishra, S.X. McFadden, N.A. Mara, A.K. Mukherjee, M.W. Mahoney, High strain rate superplasticity in a friction stir processed 7075 Al alloy. Scripta Mater. (1999). https://doi.org/10.1016/S1359-6462(99)00329-2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. G. Bianchi, P. Vavassori, B. Vila, G. Annino, M. Nagliati, M. Mallah, A. Ortona, Reactive silicon infiltration of carbon bonded preforms embedded in powder field modifiers heated by microwaves. Ceram. Int. 41(9), 12439–12446 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  17. M.G. Sause, In situ monitoring of fiber-reinforced composites: theory basic concepts, methods and applications (Vol. 242) (Springer, Berlin, 2016)

    Book  Google Scholar 

  18. T. Liu, X. He, L. Zhang, Q. Liu, X. Qu, Fabrication and thermal conductivity of short graphite fiber/Al composites by vacuum pressure infiltration. J. Compos. Mater. 48(18), 2207–2214 (2014)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. I. Ansara, A.T. Dinsdale, M.H. Rand, Al-Mg COST 507 Thermochemical database for light metal alloys (1998)

  20. H.J. Kim, J.Y. Lee, K.W. Paik, K.W. Koh, J. Won, S. Choe, Y.J. Park, Effects of Cu/Al intermetallic compound (IMC) on copper wire and aluminum pad bondability. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 26(2), 367–374 (2003)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. E. Hug, N. Bellido, Brittleness study of intermetallic (Cu, Al) layers in copper-clad aluminium thin wires. Mater. Sci. Eng., A. 528(22–23), 7103–7106 (2011)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. W.B. Lee, K.S. Bang, S.B. Jung, Effects of intermetallic compound on the electrical and mechanical properties of friction welded Cu/Al bimetallic joints during annealing. J. Alloy. Compd. 390(1–2), 212–219 (2005)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. C.Y. Chen, W.S. Hwang, Effect of annealing on the interfacial structure of aluminum- copper joints. Mater Trans. (2007). https://doi.org/10.2320/matertrans.MER2006371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. P. Sicsic, J.J. Marigo, From gradient damage laws to Griffith’s theory of crack propagation. J. Elast. 113(1), 55–74 (2013)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. M. Hajizamani, M. Alizadeh, M. Karamouz et al., Effect of post-processing annealing on microstructure, mechanical behavior and wear characteristics of semisolid thermomechanically processed Al–Zn–Mg/3 wt% Al2O3 composite. Metallogr Microstruct Anal. 10, 347–354 (2021)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. M. Rasouli, F. Akhlaghi, O.O. Ojo, M. Paidar, Preparation and characterization of in-situ Al-AlXNiY composites via reactive infiltration. J Alloy Comp. 780, 829–845 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Omid Marjani.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Rasouli, M., Asgar, M.G., Akhlaghi, F. et al. Preparation of Al-Al2Cu Composites In-situ Processed Via Reactive Infiltration. Metallogr. Microstruct. Anal. 11, 634–648 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13632-022-00873-8

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13632-022-00873-8

Keywords

  • Al-Al2Cu composites
  • In situ methods
  • Reactive infiltration
  • Rod-shaped intermetallic
  • Microstructure
  • Tensile test