Metallography, Microstructure, and Analysis

, Volume 6, Issue 6, pp 561–568 | Cite as

Effect of Phosphorus on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Iron-Based Alloys Processed Through Powder Forging

  • S. K. Chaurasia
  • Ujjwal Prakash
  • Vikram Dabhade
Technical Article


In sintered as well as cast steels presence of phosphorus is a problem as it induces brittleness in the steels and deteriorates the mechanical properties. The present research work describes a P/M route to produce ductile iron phosphorous alloys. Alloys with phosphorus contents 0, 0.35, 0.65, 1.3, 2, and 3 wt.% were developed by a powder forging route. Care was taken to ensure that no liquid-phase formation takes place during processing. First, a master alloy powder containing 5 wt.% phosphorus was produced by reacting water-atomized iron (Fe) powder with orthophosphoric acid. The iron phosphate (master alloy) particles were then blended with the iron powder. The blended powders were placed in a mild steel can and hot forged at 1323 K in a flowing hydrogen atmosphere. Hot-forged slabs were re-forged to final density and then homogenized at 1373 K for 2 h. Increasing the phosphorus content led to an increase in strength and hardness of forged alloys. Alloys with phosphorus contents < 1 wt.% exhibited significant ductility, suggesting that the presence of phosphorus did not cause the expected embrittlement. The solid-state processing used may lead to development of ductile phosphorus-containing alloys with attractive properties.


Powder forging Phosphoric iron Ductility Mechanical properties Embrittlement 



This work was carried out in the Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT Roorkee. MJP Rohilkhand University, Bareilly (UP), India, sponsored one of the authors (S. K. Chaurasia).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC and ASM International 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. K. Chaurasia
    • 1
  • Ujjwal Prakash
    • 1
  • Vikram Dabhade
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Metallurgical and Materials EngineeringIndian Institute of Technology RoorkeeRoorkeeIndia

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