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Antiamnesic effect of Mesua ferrea (L.) flowers on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in rats

Abstract

Mesua ferrea Linn. flowers have been used in Ayurveda as a brain tonic and as an ingredient in memory-enhancing formulations such as Brahma Rasayan and Chyawanprash. However, this ethnomedicinal use has not been investigated scientifically. This study evaluated the effect of the ethanolic extract of Mesua ferrea flowers (MFE) on memory in scopolamine-induced models of cognitive dysfunction. MFE was administered to rats (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o) for a period of 14 days, after which amnesia was induced by giving scopolamine (1 mg/kg, s.c) on the 14th day. Piracetam (200 mg/kg, p.o) was given as a positive control. The models employed to assess memory in the rats were the T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) and novel object recognition test (NORT). Pretreatment with MFE ameliorated the memory deficit caused by scopolamine; which was evidenced by a significantly greater relative proportion of spontaneous alternation percentage in the T-CAT, and a significant increase of discrimination index in the NORT. Further, MFE significantly inhibited anticholinesterase activity in the brain, elevated the levels of reduced glutathione and catalase, and decreased malondialdehyde and nitrite levels in the brain. The results of this study show that MFE exhibited significant anticholinesterase and antioxidant activities in scopolamine treated rats, which could be the possible underlying mechanism of its memory-enhancing activity and of its ethnomedicinal use as a brain tonic.

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Abbreviations

ABTS:

2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)

ACh:

Acetylcholine

AChE:

Acetylcholinesterase

AD:

Alzheimer’s disease

ANOVA:

Analysis of variance

ATC:

Acetylthiocholine iodide

CAT:

Catalase

CPCSEA:

Committee for purpose of control and supervision of experiments on animals

DI:

Discrimination Index

DPPH:

2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl

DTNB:

5,5’-dithio-bis (2-nitrobenzoic acid)

GAE:

Gallic acid equivalents

GSH:

Glutathione

IAEC:

Institutional Animal Ethics Committee

LTP:

Long-term potentiation

MDA:

Malondialdehyde

MFE:

Mesua ferrea flowers ethanolic extract

NORT:

Novel object recognition test

PIR:

Piracetam

RE:

Rutin equivalents

ROS:

Reactive oxygen species

SEM:

Standard error of mean

SCOP:

Scopolamine

TBARS:

Thiobarbituric acid

TCA:

Trichloroacetic acid

T-CAT:

T-maze continuous alternation task

TFC:

Total flavonoid content

TPC:

Total phenolic content

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Acknowledgements

The authors would wish to thank the Principal and the administration of AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Pune, Maharashtra for providing the necessary facilities and equipment for the conduction of the studies.

Funding

No funding was received for conducting this study.

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Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Pallavi Shirsat-John – planned and performed experiments and biochemical analysis, data collection, statistical analysis, and drafting of the article; Tina Saldanha – data analysis and interpretation, critical revision of the article; Swati Kolhe – project planning and supervision; Ziyaurrahman A.R. – supervision of the research work and in-charge of overall direction and planning.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Pallavi Shirsat-John.

Ethics declarations

Ethical statement

The guidelines established by the CPCSEA (Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals), Govt. of India, were followed for the animal experiments. The protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Ethics Committee of AISSMS College of Pharmacy, Pune (Reg. No. – 257/PO/ReBi/S/2000/CPCSEA).

Conflict of interest

Shirsat‑John Pallavi has no conflict of interest. Tina Saldanha has no conflict of interest. Swati Kolhe has no conflict of interest. A. R. Ziyaurrahman has no conflict of interest.

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Shirsat-John, P., Saldanha, T., Kolhe, S. et al. Antiamnesic effect of Mesua ferrea (L.) flowers on scopolamine-induced memory impairment and oxidative stress in rats. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-022-00654-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13596-022-00654-2

Keywords

  • Mesua ferrea
  • Scopolamine
  • Acetylcholinesterase
  • Antioxidant
  • t-maze
  • Novel object recognition test