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Nephroprotective effect of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm f.: Sivakaranthai (a Siddha Kayakalpa drug) against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity


Acute kidney injury (AKI) is described as a disorder with a sudden loss of kidney function. AKI is also attributed to several aetiologies such as diabetes, cardiac problems, etc. Developing a therapy for AKI is challenging due to its complex pathophysiology. The present study investigated the effect of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm f. aqueous extract, a Siddha Kalpha drug, against gentamicin-induced AKI. Animals were initially pre-administered with different concentrations of S. amaranthoides and later induced with gentamicin on the 8th day. Biochemical, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant markers were analysed. Further, HRLCMS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive components. Components including myo-inositol, traumatic acid, rosmarinic acid, etc. were identified. In the animals induced with gentamicin, KIM1, LDH, GGT, creatinine, BUN and electrolytes were elevated in both serum and urine, while noted within normal range in S. amaranthoides pre-administered groups. Histopathology analysis revealed prevention of necrosis, tubular epithelial cell degeneration and glomerular congestion in S. amaranthoides administered animals. Lipid peroxidation, KIM1, Cystatin C, TNFα, IL6 and NFκB were within normal range in tissues. Thus, it is evident that S. amaranthoides is effective in protecting kidney damage and treating AKI. Further studies will be conducted to analyse the pathways resurrecting kidney damage.

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The authors would like to acknowledge the technical and non-technical staffs in the Department of Biochemistry and Pharmacology.


This study was supported by Intramural Research Grant from Ministry of AYUSH (Grant No: 429/2017–18).

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Correspondence to Ganesan Rethinam.

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This article does not contain any studies with human participants, but the article focused on Nephrotoxicity involving Wistar Albino Rats. The Approval number has been provided within the article already.

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Ganesan Rethinam has no conflict of interest. Anand Duraiswamy has no conflict of interest. G. Dayanand Reddy has no conflict of interest. P. Elankani has no conflict of interest. Sampath Kundrapakkam Srinivasan has no conflict of interest.

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Rethinam, G., Duraiswamy, A., Reddy, G.D. et al. Nephroprotective effect of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides Burm f.: Sivakaranthai (a Siddha Kayakalpa drug) against gentamicin induced nephrotoxicity. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) 22, 415–424 (2022).

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  • Acute kidney injury
  • Sphaeranthus amaranthoides
  • Kalpa drug
  • KIM1
  • Cystatin C