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Protective effect of Prunus amygdalus nut extract on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced memory deficits and biochemical alterations in rats


Stress intervenes in the brain’s capability to encode and regain information from a person, it alters the biochemical parameters in specific regions of the brain can cause long-term damage to various parts of brain. The present investigations aid in understanding the effect of the Prunus amygdalus nut extract on CUS induced memory deficits in rats. The methanolic extract with an antioxidant potential (~ 60%) and was selected for in vivo analysis. CUS was induced in rats using different stress paradigms for 10 days. On day 11 and 12, acquisition trials for memory evaluation were performed using Morris Water Maze. On day 13 and 10 days later on, i.e. day 23, short-term and long-term memory retrievals trials were evaluated, respectively. Treatment groups were given test methanolic extract an hour before the subjection of CUS. Biochemical estimations and histopathological studies were carried out using brain tissue homogenate and brain tissue section, respectively. CUS altered the Transfer Latency time in both acquisition and retrieval trials, indicating memory impairment, which was reduced significantly in extract-treated groups. Administration of P. amygdalus nut methanolic extract protected the rat brains against CUS-induced neuroinflammatory changes. The observed beneficial effects could be attributed to the antioxidant potential of P. amygdalus.

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Authors would like to acknowledge the help given by ‘PK’ and ‘AB’ for their help in plant identification and plant extraction process.


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Authors and Affiliations



Authors NB and RKD designed the study. Author PK and AK performed the experimental work, while the statistical analysis was done by NK. Authors NB, MUK and BG wrote the protocol and the first draft of the manuscript. Authors NB and RKD managed the analyses of the results and discussions. NB managed the literature searches. All the authors contributed to the design of the study, and read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Nitish Bhatia.

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Ethical statement

Authors hereby declare that “Principles of laboratory animal care” (NIH publication No. 85-23, revised 1985) were followed. The care of laboratory animals was done as per guidelines of CPCSEA, Ministry of Forests & Environment; Government of India. The research protocol of this study was approved by Institutional Animal Ethics Committee (IAEC) of Khalsa College of Pharmacy, Amritsar.

Conflict of interest

Nitish Bhatia has no conflict of interest. Abhitinder Kumar has no conflict of interest. Parminder Kaur has no conflict of interest. Benu George has no conflict of interest. Narinder Kaur has no conflict of interest. Masih Uzaaman Khan has no conflict of interest. Ravi Kumar Dhawan has no conflict of interest.

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Bhatia, N., Kumar, A., Kaur, P. et al. Protective effect of Prunus amygdalus nut extract on chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) induced memory deficits and biochemical alterations in rats. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) 22, 305–314 (2022).

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  • Prunus amygdalus
  • Chronic unpredictable stress
  • Memory deficits
  • Antioxidants
  • Stress