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Baccharis trimera (carqueja) promotes gastroprotection on ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer

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One of the factors that can promote gastric ulcer is the acute and/or chronic consumption of ethanol. One of the most used therapeutic measures is the use of proton pump inhibitor, like omeprazole. However, these drugs have several side effects, making it necessary to search for new alternatives. To investigate the gastroprotective effect of Baccharis trimera (carqueja) we used an ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer model. For this, gastric ulcer was induced in rats using absolute ethanol for 2 consecutive days. After analysis of the stomach, an increase in oxidative stress was observed, as well as the reduction of the antioxidant defense. In addition, we observed in histology that there was an increase in inflammatory cells, necrosis, hemorrhage and hyperemia. Treatment with B. trimera was able to decrease oxidative damage as well as improve antioxidant defense. There was also a decrease in inflammation, collagen area and hemorrhage. All the beneficial effects promoted by carqueja were similar to those found by the positive controls used in our study (vitamin C and omeprazole). Analyzing our data, we can conclude that B. trimera presents a gastroprotective effect and should be further studied for its application in gastric ulcer therapy.

Graphical abstract

After 2 days of consumption of absolute ethanol, the animals' stomachs showed an increase in oxidative stress, characterized by reduction of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and increase of TBARS and carbonylated protein. This situation led to stomach inflammation, necrosis, hemorrhage and hyperemia. These was minimized by the consumption of Baccharis trimera extracts (Bt), since it was able to decrease oxidative damage and increasing GSSG, reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT). In addition, there was decreased inflammation, hemorrhage and collagen area after Bt consumption. GR reductase gluthione, GPx peroxidase glutathione. Bt in green: stimulation; Bt in red: inhibits.

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Baccharis trimera


Oxidized glutathione


Reduced glutathione


Glutathione peroxidase


Glutathione reductase




Superoxide dismutase


Control group


Ethanolic group


Hydroethanolic extract


Aqueous extract






Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances


Proton pump inhibitor


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This research was supported by Coordination of Improvement of Higher Level Personnel (CAPES) and Federal University of Ouro Preto (UFOP), Brazil.

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Authors and Affiliations



ACSR carried out the experiment and wrote the article. FCC carried out oxidative stress dosages. MMB performed the part of histology. WGdL supervised the experimental part and assisted in the statistical analysis. DCC supervised the experimental part and assisted in writing the article.

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Correspondence to Ana Carolina Silveira Rabelo.

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Ethical statement

In the study we used animals approved by the Committee guidelines on Care and Use of Animal from Federal University of Ouro Preto, Brazil (No. 2016/01).

Conflict of interest

Ana Carolina Silveira Rabelo has no conflict of interest. Fernanda Caetano Camini has no conflict of interest. Melissa Maia Bittencourt has no conflict of interest. Kíssyla Lacerda has no conflict of interest. Wanderson Geraldo de Lima has no conflict of interest. Daniela Caldeira Costa has no conflict of interest.

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Rabelo, A.C.S., Camini, F.C., Bittencourt, M.M. et al. Baccharis trimera (carqueja) promotes gastroprotection on ethanol-induced acute gastric ulcer. ADV TRADIT MED (ADTM) 20, 563–570 (2020).

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